The encyclopedia of the tourist
Aalam Ordo, cultural and ethnographic
center. It is located 8 km east of Kadji-Sai, the southern
shore of Issyk-Kul lake. According to the author of the cultural
center, Tashkul Kereksiz, Aalam Ordo should become a kind
of "center of the Universe", combining the principal human values.
(He was the author of "Cultural Center Ruh Ordo Tashkul Ata,
which was built on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul in the resort
area of Cholpon-Ata).
| Aalam Ordo
Ak-Sai, valley, Chui
Ak-Sai, valley, Naryn
| Akayev Askar
Ala-Archa, natural park
Those interested can
get acquainted here with virtually all Kyrgyz traditions
and customs. In addition, this center will present the
traditional symbols of the Kyrgyz nation - eagles, hawks
and other animals. Top
(28/12/1901 - 05/11/1938). Abdrakhmanov was born in the village
of Chirkei, Karakol district (Issyk-Kul region). His father
- Abdrakhman Balapanov - manap, biy (or 'bey' - a traditionally
applied title of a leader of a small tribe) and a 3-year parish steward.
He was a participant in the uprising of 1916, during which he died
from typhoid fever. Abdrakhmanov's mother and seven close relatives
were killed in Naryn in suppressing the revolt. Abdrakhmanov was
orphaned along with his younger brother - Toka (approximate birth
year was 1909). He graduated from the 3-class' Russian-Tuzemny school
(1912-1915) and also studied in Karakol town's high-primary institution
(1915-1916), but he did not finish it. His wife - Gulya Abdrahmanovna
(born approximately in 1903). Abdrakhmanov's sons: Anvar (born around
1921) and Alibek (born around 1923). In 1918, Yusuf joined ("signed
up for") the All-Union Communist Party (AUCP(b)) in Vern, however due
to his departure to Tashkent he was mechanically excluded. Abdrakhmanov
re-joined the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in March 1919. In the 1920s,
the instructor of staff of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist
Party (Bolshevik), Yusuf Abdrakhmanov was involved in drawing up maps
of the national-state demarcation of Turkestan. Yusuf enjoyed a great
prestige of the Central Committee. He has been in civil war, involved
with in a military operation in the League. Abdrakhmanov took the initiative
to create a single Kyrgyz-Karakalpak autonomy from the Issyk-Kul to the
Aral Sea with its center in the town of Jalal-Abad. Yusuf led various
evidence, but the critical of all was the epic of Manas. Manas was sung
and recited in Karakol, in Pishpek and Osh counties! First, Kara-Kyrgyz
Autonomous region was founded, then the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist
Republic. Yusuf Abdrakhmanov fought for the idea of self-determination
of Kyrgyz people. From 1919 to 1927, he worked in various positions. From
March 1927 to October 1933 - he was the Chairman of People's Commissars
of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1933, Abdrakhmanov
was accused of nationalism, he was therefore dismissed and expelled
from the party. He worked at the level of the "grassroots work" in Samara
and Orenburg cities. Yusuf was arrested on 4 April, 1937 in Orenburg.
He was drawn to the affair of the "Social Turanian party." He was then
deported to Frunze, where he was sentenced to the highest punishment
and shot on the night of 5 to 6 November 1938. Top
(his real name is Karganbai Apkuchakov) - leader of the first
Kyrgyz Embassy in Russia in 1785-1788, respectively. In the spring
of 1785 Atakeh-biy - the top biy of Sarybagysh tribe - sent Abdurahman
Kuchakov and Shergazy to Russia as ambassadors. Atakei-biy sought
the patronage of Russia through Kyrgyz ambassadors and, in turn,
took the duties of the free transmission of trading caravans from
Russia to Central Asia and in the opposite direction of the properties
under his possession. On 23 August, 1785, Abdurahman Kuchakov and
Shergazy arrived to Omsk. In January 1787, they were welcomed by Ekaterina
II. Abdurahman Kuchakov died on 20 June, 1789 on his way back, in
Abshir-Sai, tract. It lies
at an altitude from 1500 to 2500 meters above sea
level. In a picturesque canyon with steep rocky
slopes on the eponymous river, 70 km from the city
of Osh there is the famous waterfall Abshir-Ata, which
is a unique creation of nature. From the rounded opening of
approximately 2-meter diameter in sheer hundred-meter
wall, water dust bursts out with the noise and falls down
from 30-meter height. The waterfall water known as holy
and has medicinal properties. Pilgrims come from afar to bathe
in the sprays of this waterfall as well as to collect the water
in bottles. This place got its name from the first settlements
of the Tajiks and it translates as "water and milk" source from
Tajik. One of the legends says that in ancient times, Tajiks
and Kyrgyz lived in the canyon in poverty. Once upon a time,
a traveler came to them, and said that he is the messenger
of God. People questioned: "If you are holy, create a miracle".
Then the stranger hit the stick on the rock, and milk came out
from the rock. The residents were pleased and blessed this place.
Religious people came from different countries in order to see
and bow down to the miraculous power of the source. People
became so accustomed to this miracle that they have ceased
to cherish it, women began to wash things in the holy spring
source. Apparently, the higher powers got offended by it, then
the mountaineers discovered that instead of milk, normal water
was pouring out.
. Abshir-Ata is a waterfall, which
is classed a sanctuary of nature. It is located
in the Nookat district of Osh region on the Abshir-Sai
river, 3 km above the mouth of the canyon through which
flows this river. The water cascades down the right side
of a steep canyon (height 12-15 m) into the main river channel.
The water is slightly mineralised containing calcium and
magnesium. There is Kotur-Bulak spring source located within
the vicinity of the waterfall. Top
Near the waterfall there is a spring source
known as Kotur-Bulak with crystal clear cool
water. It is located inside a large karts cave on
the left cliff canyon. Water gushes out under the rocks
and is considered to be curative. Abshir-Sai lake is
located 10 meters away, from which river Abshir-Sai is
filtered through the dam. In the valley of Abshir-Sai
rock paintings can be found. One group is located 5 km south
of Kek-Jar village, the other is about 20 km south of the
Abshir-Ata waterfall at the source of the river. Top
Achik-Tash is the base camp for climbers at the peak
of Lenin. In translation from Kyrgyz it means "Open Stone",
and it is open every year from 20 June to 10 September.
It is a complex consisting of
two camps - basic and advanced. Overall management
and coordination of work groups is carried out by two chiefs
over the two camps.
Base Camp is located on the
picturesque glade near a stream with a view of the northern
slopes of Lenin Peak at an altitude of 3600m above sea level.
There are moraine lakes all around the camp. Accommodation
provided for customers in double tents is equipped with mattresses.
Eating facilities are located
within yurts and is provided three times a day.
Communication with the outside
world via satellite phone. The camp has a bar, shop,
rental of sports equipment, sauna, the possibility of filling
gas cans and luggage storage. There are television and disco
club available. Advanced Base Camp is located on the left
bank of the moraine at an altitude of 4400m under the northern
slopes of Lenin Peak. Here, climbers live in large double tents,
where they are given mats instead of mattresses to sleep on. Dining
room is located in a yurt. Safety is ensured by climbing rescue team
consisting of skilled climbers and rescuers, as well as an experienced
physician. Communication between the camps is via radio.
Achik-Tash is a mining site. It is one of the famous
climbing areas in the world. It is located in the central,
the highest part, of Zaalayskiy (or Chon-Alai) Range, on the
border with Tajikistan. The mountain complexes are powerful glaciers
and peaks: Dzerzhinsky (6,716 m), Kyzyl-Agyn (6,663 m) and Estonia
(6202 m). The highest and most popular point of the mountain site
Achik-Tash is Lenin peak, 7134 m in height. In the area of strong glaciation,
the slopes of the hills are covered with ice and snow. The ascendance
of heights is up to 3000 m. The routes are not technically difficult,
mainly snowy and snow-icy. This provides an excellent opportunity
to make high-altitude climbing, even without high technical training.
The climate here is much milder than in the Tien-Shan. Average temperatures
in July and August are 10 ° C. Most rain falls in April - early June,
much less in August-September. The base camp can be reached by car
from the city of Osh on a mountain road through the pass Taldyk (3615
m), distance of 220 km. Apart from Achik-Tash, Lenin Peak can also
be reached from a nearby ravine, Kamansu, through the vertex split.
At Achik-Tash, you may find a large number of expeditions and base camps
climbers from around the world during the summer period, whereas from
Kamansu side, Lenin Peak is rarely walked through, although the time
to climb it is the same, route is safer and you can reach the base
camp by car. From the field of edelweiss, located in the tract of Achik-Tash,
which is also the starting point of all ascents seventhousander, opens
a panorama of the mountainous region. Top
A high mountain valley, to the
South East of Kochkor, offering treks along
the Savan river and a visit to the Kel-Ukok lake
(«Lake in a Chest»). From the Kara-Tor Peak there
is a panoramic view across to Lake Issyk-Kul. Top
Adygene, gorge. It’s
a left tributary of Ala-Archa. Adygene river
falls into Ala-Archa from the west much lower the
camp. It takes approximately an hour to the Adygene waterfall
from Ala-Archa along the river. The path always lies
on the right bank. This beach is covered in fir trees,
which is a beautiful decor within the gorge. At the terminal
moraine of the glacier there is a convenient platform for
a large camp, the so-called "Elektro" parking. It has a stream
with clean water. Vertex Adygene is located in the upper valley
of the same name on the northern slope in the central part of the
Kyrgyz Range. It is the highest point of Dzhalamyshsky spur. Between
the Adygene peak and the Electro peak lies Adygene Pass (4030
m). To the west of the peak Adygene is a short crest.
Western slopes of the tops cut off by steep
rock walls. The northern slope is a hanging
glacier, turning into glacier known as Tez-Tor. Vertex
Adygene is clearly visible from Ala-Archa and
from the city of Bishkek, where the vertex looks like
a pyramid of ice. To ascend to the top of Adygene can be
carried out from the Adygene pass. The ascent to the pass
from the Electro parking takes 3-4 hours. The path for ascent
to the Adygene peak goes from the pass to the eastern
snow ridge, the overall steepness of which is about 30 degrees.
The crest intersects the two ridges of rock. The first
of these requires a bypass on the left side. The vertex represents
an elongated snowy ground with rocks on its west end.
Ahunbaev, Isa (1908-1975). He was a Soviet
surgeon, academician and the first president of the Academy of Sciences
of the Kyrgyz SSR. Since 1948, Ahunbaev was a director of the Kyrgyz Medical
Institute and the Head of the Department of General Surgery (since 1946).
His main works were devoted to the study of endemic goitre, appendicitis
in children and echinococcosis. He was an initiator of the lung surgery in
Aichurek Bulak. Ak Jar village,
Talas region. Talas. Guardian – Esengul Jumanazarov. Type of mazar
– spring. On the right side of the road to Ak Jar village, 500 meters
away in the direction of the forest. 30 meters to the east, there is
a lake. Aichurek Apa Bulak is 700 meters above the lake. Top
Chingiz Torekulovich, is a writer (1928-2008).
He was born in Sheker village in Talas region. His father,
Torekul Aitmatov, was a prominent statesman, arrested in 1937
and executed in 1938. His mother, Nagima Hamzievna Abdulvalieva,
was Tatar in nationality and an actress in a local theater.
Chingiz graduated from eighth
grade and entered Jambul Zoo Technical Institute,
which he completed with honors. In 1948, Aitmatov entered
the Agricultural Institute in Frunze and graduated in 1953.
In 1952 he started publishing stories in Kyrgyz language in
local newspaper. Upon finishing University he worked in Agricultural
Research Institute in cattle breading for three years and continued
to write and publish short stories. In 1956 he entered courses
in literature to continue higher education in Moscow and graduated
in 1958. In the year he graduated, he published a story â€śFace
to faceâ€ť in the magazine “October” which was translated from
Kyrgyz. Same year other short stories were published in a magazine
“New world” and also a novel “Jamila” which brought him worldwide
fame. From 1990-1991, he was the ambassador of the Soviet Union
in Luxemburg. From 1992-1994 he was a Kyrgyz ambassador in
Russia and from 1995-2008 in Belgium, Luxemburg, and Netherlands.
He earned 46 awards in different
countries. He created 17 novels. Twelve films were based
on his work. Top
Aitiev, Gapar Aitievich (1912-1984) - he
was one of the first Soviet Kyrgyz artists and a national artist of Kyrgyz
SSR and USSR. He was a member-correspondent of Academy of Arts of USSR.
He studied at the Moscow Art Academy (1935-1938) of N. P. Krymov. Aitiev
was a member of the Great Patriotic War. He was a chairman of the Union
of Artists of Kyrgyzstan. Since 1977, he headed a creative workshop of
painting in Frunze. He was an author of poetic landscapes, a number of
portraits, genre paintings and monumental paintings. Top
(Suyab). Situated on the eastern
edge of Tokmok - near to the Bus Station,
Ak-Beshim was once one of the most important
trade and cultural centers in the Chui valley,
inhabited by the Turks and Sogdians. Archaeologists
date the origin of the town to the 5th and 6th
Centuries. It was, in fact. Referred to by the
Buddhist monk, Tripitaka (602-644), in his account of
his travels. It later came under Arab influence
and faded into history in the period between the 10th
and 12th centuries. Today all that remains are
eroded ridges and grass covered mounds - although
Archaelogists have conducted several excavations
and revealed much about the thriving city.
paved and pebbled streets, water pipes
made from tiles, Buddhist temples a
church and a fortress. Top
Pass (3285 m). At the Southern
end of the At-Bashi range - it is 4 kilometers
from the outer check post on the road
to Torugart - where you enter the border zone. Top
Ak-Chunkur, cave, 3105 m and is
also called “the White hole. It is located 7 km east of
the village Echkili-Tash, on the right bank of the river
Sary-Jaz, in the limestone cliff. The cave consists of the two
levels and starts in a large room. Its width is 8-9m, height
1,4-2 m and 3-4 m in some places. The ceiling of the cave is steep
and is fitting to the bedding layers of limestone. The length
of the entire cave is 40-45 m. The most ancient monuments of art,
drawings of people and animals, are found on the walls and ceilings
of the cave. The drawings capture hunting and dancing scenes
made by the artists using red ocher 5-10 thousand years ago, at the
turn of Mesolithic and Neolithic era. The contours of the drawings
are made by using a thumb. They are located in separate groups on
the walls of the cave. There are copies of 14 drawings made. There
are two fat women, seven dancing hunters, mountain goats, and snakes.
The palette of the artist from the Stone Age was also found here, a
hollow goat horn filled with oil.
The cave is not suitable
for occupancy. There were no signs that a man used
this place for a daily life. It was used most likely as an
ancient temple where magical rites were performed. Stone tools
from VI-V thousand years B.C. were also found here during
drawings have been destroyed by many tourists visiting
this site. The smoke from the burning fires and torches
has also added to the damage.
A small lake lies not
far from the cave. Right above the village is Ak-Bulak
canyon, where gold and silver was mined. There are many
small canyons and trails through the mountains to the Almaty.
In the North-western corner of the
oblast, South of Taraz (Kazakhstan), just
inside the border, archeologists have discovered
the site of an ancient settlement dating from
between the 6th and 7h centuries. Also known as Dzhoon-Debe.Top
Ak-Sai, valley. Chui region. Ak-Sai
River is one of the major tributaries of Ala-Archa.
The Ak-Sai district is frequently visited by novice
climbers as well as contenders for prizes in competitions
in climbing the highest level for many decades now. Groups
of hikers and climbers from around the world come annually
to Kyrgyzstan to visit this unique mountain area. The path to
the mountainous district of Ak-Sai starts from Ala-Archa gorge.
The trail through the forest with pyramidal firs and blue archa
on the left side slopes is within three hours and brings us right
to the foot of the Ak-Sai glacier parking base Ratsek. There is
a comfortable stone hut at an altitude of 3200 m. The rocks, waterfall,
creek and the earthy grass-cover make a great rest-point after
climbing in this beautiful place. Parking Ratsek is one of the
main places for climbers and hikers base. A few hours walk from Ratsek
are three other small huts. One is located on the moraine of the glacier
'Teacher' under the walls of the first tower of Crown and buttresses
Semenov Tien-Shan. Two other - "koronskie" or Crown huts (3700 m)
are located on the moraine, where Crown glacier flows into the Ak-Sai.
huts, located in different parts of the gorge, make
routes of short duration-less than an hour. Walls
of Free Korea and the Crown are the most attractive
in the Ak-Sai valley.
northern slope of the Ak-Sai valley overgrown with
high Tien Shan firs. Mouth of the river Ak-Sai ,where
it flows into Ala-Archa, represents as a large mudflow
Ak-Sai glacier largely determines the microclimate
of the area - its harsh and cold. The Ak-Sai valley
has more than eighty skilled routes from 1 to 6B categories
of complexity. About 30 - Routes of 5-6 category
of difficulty. This means some serious walls in the area.
Rock-icy walls go up to 900 meters: Semenov Tian-Shan (4875
m) - the highest in the region; the Crown (4860 m); Free Korea
(4740m); Baylyan-Bashi (4700m); Simagina (4400 m), Bocks (4240
m). The buttresses of Baychechekey (4515 m) are not of a less
beauty either. Also this region has a unique training base.
valley. Naryn region. Ak-Sai is a broad highland
valley between two mountain ranges, limited to the
border area between At-Bashi and Torugart. To visit this
valley a special permit is required. Roads in the Ak-Sai
passable mainly by an SUV. There is an ancient human settlement
of Neolithic period.
Ak-Sai basin is considered to be a pole of cold in Kyrgyzstan,
where the hydro-meteorological station of Ak-Sai
(3135m) has recorded the lowest air temperature (-53.6
°C) at an average January temperature of -27.7 °C. The
valley was overgrown with a short but very thick grass, replete
with swamps and lakes. The Ak-Sai valley is an important ground
for hunting tourism. The object of hunting is predominantly
mountain Marco Polo sheep and ibex. The hunting bases are
concentrated in that valley as well as the adjacent valleys.
the ridge. The area is located south of the middle part
of Terskey Ala-Too, its approximate border is between areas
of Jety-Oguz in the east and Dzhuuka in the west (east of the
pass Barskaun). The area is approximately 60 km in length and 28
km wide. The inner part of the array has a typical alpine look with
narrow rocky ridges. Translated from the Kyrgyz word meaning "Shiyrak"
- shin bone (tibia). Ak-Shiyrak - is a phrase usually used in
relation to sheep and means "white-leg".
Ak-Shiyrak - is one of the most
compact units of glaciation of the Central Tien-Shan Mountains,
and about 46% of its area covered by glaciers. The total
number of glaciers in the Ak-Shiyrak is more than 150, where
the area of glaciers is about 430 sq km; glacier tongues are
arranged from 3700 m to 4100 m. The snow line is at an altitude of
4100-4150 m in the west of the array, which has a more pronounced
effect of moist air masses brought by the part of the Issyk-Kul passes
through Terskey Ala-Too, and rises to 4500-4550 m in the east of
the Ak-Shiyrak. The most significant glaciers in the array of Ak-Shiyrak
are Petrova (Kumtor-Naryn pool - 11 km and the area of 69 sq km);
North Karasaj (Karas Naryn pool - 12 km and the area of 49 sq km),
Jamal-Su (Sary pool - 10 km and the area of 39 sq km), Kaindy (or
Koyandy, Sary pool - 8 km and the area of 24 sq km). The climbers' range,
Ak-Shiyrak, is visited very rarely. Thus, there are opportunities to
make first ascents. The highest point of Ak-Shiyrak is 5,126 m (located
in the eastern part of the array) - a nameless summit.
Ak-Shiyrak's climate is continental,
dry and extremely harsh - in syrty, October temperatures
are up to -20C, and winter temperatures can drop to -50C.
Weather station "Tien-Shan" is located at syrty at an altitude
of 3700 m. Closer to the lake is located lower end of the face
of Petrova glacier, located at the Kyrgyz-Canadian gold mining
plant "Kumtor". The area around the mine is guarded. To reach Ak-Shiyrak
can be possible by on-road vehicles through the Barskaun path.
In order to visit the southern part of the Ak-Shiyrak, it may be
required to have a special frontier-pass. Top
Ak-Suu. Batken region. The
Ak-Suu tour camp is located at 5335
metres a. s. l. some 80 km from the regional centre
near the Kara-Suu river and has hosted
a number of mountaineering expeditions.
Ak-Suu, valley. Ak-Suu is 12 kilometers
east of Karakol city. Above “Teplokluchenka” research
station is the Arashan river that flows into Ak-Suu
valley. Above the bifurcation, the Ak-Suu river flows
as gray and red granite in the narrow gorge. The width
of the bottom of the gorge is 30-40m and the height of the
slopes is up to 300 m. Resort Ak-Suu is located at about
3km from the river, at an altitude of 1920 m. Nearby it,
thermal (31-57°C) radon sources flow from the cracks of granite
rocks. There is treatment available here, which is carried out
since 1990s of the 19 century. Above the resort, the Ak-Suu valley
is rapidly growing, the lower slopes are covered with picturesque
clumps of Tien-Shan fir, the tributaries flow down from the
slopes of both valleys as waterfalls. Top
Ak-Suu, pass. Issyk-Kul. This
pass is located in the central part of the Kungei Ala-Too,
between the upper river - Chon-Ak-Suu, (the basin
of the Issyk-Kul lake), and Ak-Suu river (a tributary of
the river Chon-Kemin, Chu basin). North-west of the pass lies
the glacier Ak-Suu (northern slope Kungei Ala-Too), and south-east
– the upper reaches of the river Chon-Ak-Suu. According to
the geomorphological type - this is an ice destructive pass,
i.e. it was initially subject to erosion by the river, and then
it was processed by the Pleistocene glacier, probably of a ďĺđĺě¸ňíîăî
type. The pass connects the upper reaches of Chonkemin valley
and Chon-Ak-Suu valley, as well as the Issyk-Kul basin. Top
Ak-Suu, canyon. Issyk-Kul.
Also known as Semenovka after
the village on the main road where the valley
emerges. The canyon is some 25 kilometers
long and an asphalt road leads some 15 kilometers
into the mountains from the village
of Semyenovka, (named after the Russian explorer,
Petr Semenov «Tianshansky»), following the
valley of the Chong Ak-Suu («Big White Water»),
past the Kyrchyn tourbaza which used to have
a 240-bed hotel, and other facilities. The road
leads to a jailoo (mountain pasture) at 2010 metres
above sea level and the connurbation with the Kichi
Ak-Suu («Little White Water») river. The river flows some
34 kilometers from the glaciers in the mountain
peaks down into lake Issyk Kul, through three small lakes,
including Sutuu Bulak (which means «milky spring»). The
jailoo was historically used as a meeting place for congresses
of Kyrgyz elders. The Djel Karagey canyon is home to a Forest
Reserve - with meadows and multi-cascade waterfalls. Here,
from the end of June until the end of September there is a collection
of yurts which offer a wide range of services. The «yurt village»
is marketed as an ethnological experience. Half of the twenty
yurts are reserved for guests - and in the other half live several
local families which provide the services, entertainment, etc.
- so guests have a chance to experience authentic, traditional,
elements of the Kyrgyz nomadic lifestyle. The yurts are all traditional
- not like most of the yurt inns in Kyrgyzstan - for example,
here you will end up sleeping on the floor under adiella - a sort
of «duvet» - not in beds. Unfortunately, this also means that
things like toitels, washing facilities and so on are also traditional.
The of lack in modern conveniences, however, is more than made
up for by the thoughtful programme - which explores the history,
culture, crafts, food and games of the Kyrgyz people. It
is possible to walk or take horses into the surrounding countryside;
encounter half-wild yaks; watch demonstrations of crafts and
horsemanship by masters; listen to traditional music; listen
to a «manaschi» recite excerpts from the epic poem «Manas»;
eat traditional foods; drink khoumis and even participate in
putting up a yurt — an all round, authentic, Kyrgyz experience.
Ak-Suu. Chui. Ak-Suu
is one of the valleys in the Kyrgyz Krebet.
Traveling from Bishkek - this narrow
canyon is best approached by turning towards
the mountains after Belovodskoe and passing
through the village of Kyzyl Dyykan.
Here can be seen one of the first orthodox churches
to be built in Central Asia. The road follows the
stream bed deep into the mountains - and it is said that
this is very good fishing country. Top
Ak-Talaa. Ninety kilometers
to the West of Naryn. Famous as the
birthplace of Togolok Moldo, who appears
on the 20 som banknote, and for numerous thermal
springs and therapeutic muds.
river flows through this region and in
places the water reaches speeds of 60 km/hour
as it cascades between steep cliffs and enters
Ak Talaa provides
access to the Southern route up to Lake
Son-Kul. Past the mausoleum of Tailyk Batyr
and climbing the steep hillsides by a
winding route you emerge onto the plain with
the lake in front of you. Top
Ak-Tash, a burial ground. Ak-Tash
is located at the foot of the Kungei Ala-Too, north of
the village of Sary-Kamysh. It consists of numerous groups
of mounds. Small mounds are scattered in disarray and the
big ones stretch in the chain-like way.
On the territory
of the burial ground some stone sculptures are found.
Among the mounds are boulders, many of them are carved figures
of animals such as goats, camels, horses, etc. The cemetery
was left by tribes of Saks, Usuns and ancient Turks. The cemetery
was opened in 1982 by D.F. Vinnik. Top
Ak-Terek, hillfort. Located on
the left bank of the Ak-Terek (Ton district, Issyk-Kul),
in the northern village of Kyzyl-Tuu. The plan - a square
fort, the length of the sides 54x54 m. The walls reinforced
with towers. The cultural layer of negligible thickness.
The finds are pottery X-XII centuries. Hillfort was the strengthening
of the trade route that runs along the southern shore of Lake
Issyk-Kul. Now is the built-up village of Kyzyl-Tuu. Surveyed
in 1962 by DF Vinnik.
At 5 km south of the
village of Kyzyl-Tuu on the left bank of the river
Ak-Terek are carvings. On boulders and cliffs carved figures
of animals: goats, deer, horses, camels, etc. Many of the drawings
are made in the manner of the Scythian-Siberian animal style.
The tract where there are rock paintings, was a sanctuary
of ancient tribes that lived in the basin of the river Ak-Terek
and surrounding areas, age II-I millennium BC. Opened in 1962,
DF Vinnik. Top
Ak-Unkur. A cave by
the river Bala Chichkan. Top
Akayev Askar, the first
President of the Kyrgyz Republic. Born on 10 November, 1944 in
the village of Vorontsovka, in Kemin district in the family of the
farmer, Akai Tokoev. In 1961, Akayev graduated from high school with
a golden medal. In 1968, he graduated with honors from the Leningrad
Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics, then started his post-graduate
studies. In 1980, he defended his doctoral dissertation at the Moscow
Engineering Physics Institute. In 1984, he was elected as a corresponding
member of Academy of Sciences in Kyrgyzstan, and in the same year,
he became an Academician of the Academy of Sciences (AS) Kyrgyz SSR.
Askar Akayev - Professor, Honorary Doctor of Sciences and foreign member
of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), has about 150 scientific papers,
43 articles, and 7 inventions. He has prepared 20 candidates and three doctors.
Seven of his students became laureates - winners of various prizes. According
to the eminent specialist in the field of holography, Academician Yuri
Denisyuk, - Askar Akayev, "was able to achieve dramatic results at
the intersection of two areas - optics and computer technology, far
ahead of his time." On 27, October, 1990 Akaev was elected as a President
of Kyrgyz Republic. On 24 December, 1995 - he was re-elected for a second
term. On 24 March, 2005 - as a result of a coup d'etat (Tulip Revolution),
Akayev was overthrown from his post. On 5 April, 2005 - Akayev resigned
as the president. According to the Kyrgyz Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Akayev works as a professor at Moscow State University, holding a post
of chief scientific officer of the Institute of Mathematical Research of
Complex Systems named I. R. Prigozhin.
In May 2006 - Akayev was elected as a foreign member
of the Academy of Sciences for outstanding research in the field
of optical information processing. In 2009 - he became Coordinator
of the sub-program "Systematic analysis and mathematical modeling
of global dynamics" of the Presidium of RAS.
Akayev family - relatives of Askar Akayev, played
key roles in economic and political life in Kyrgyzstan during his
residency. In particular, the Akaev clan controlled alcohol, market
of combustive-lubricating and building materials. Damage from the
Akayev's clan to the Kyrgyzstan's economy was estimated at $50 million.
In particular, in the words of former Prime Minister, Tursunbek Chyngyshev,
- in 1993, Akayev flew 1800 kg of gold out from Kyrgyzstan on a charter
flight to Switzerland.
Akayev's family comes from an Abylai kind, which
is included in a large tribal union of "sarybagysh" ("yellow elk").
Ancestral village of Akayev family is considered to be Kemin (Chui
oblast). Among the ancestors of Akayev is Shabdan-warrior, who was
one of the guides of the Russian politics in Central Asia in the XIX century.
gorge, Kyrgyz range. Offering dozens of walking and trekking
possibilities, including hikes to glaciers and, for the serious
mountaineer, treks to the region's highest peak.
The region of Ak-Sai glacier, located
in Ala-Archa gorge, is the most popular and most frequently
visited area. Around 150 routes have taken place through this
area from the most simplest routes to the complex ones with walls
of up to 1100 m high.
There are four mountain huts, three
of them are small (approximately 4x4 m), one made of stone
and is more comfortable, it holds up to 20 people. From the end
of the road in Al-Archa gorge to the large hut in the parking
lot of Ak-Sai, is a 3hrs walk on foot. Other gorges of Ala-Archa
include Adygene, Top-Karagai, Tuyuk and Golubina, and are visited
less frequently than Ak-Sai itself, they do not hold such unique opportunities
An excess height there is up to 600
meters and the tours are generally of easy and moderate
difficulty, but there are far more opportunities for discovering
and enjoying new routes.
Ala-Archa river originates from the
big glacier. There is a number of major tributaries that
flow into the river, from the top to the mouth, and they include
Tuyuk-Suu, Top-Karagai, Teke-Top, Ak-Sai, Adygene, Karagai-Bulak,
Kadyr-Berdy, Beru-Sai, Kashka-Suu and Oruu-Sai. Unique landscapes
of Ala-Archa gorge characterize the nature of both the arid western
and the eastern, more damp and woodland-like, parts of the Northern
The hills are lined with Spruce and
Juniper woods. The base camp is several kilometres from the
main gate and is at 2100 m. Trekking to almost 5000 m is possible,
although most people stay near the lower reaches that are often
used for picnics.
Ak-Sai canyon - to the left of the gate
at base camp - track leads to Karona Peak (4692 m) - the
Ak-Sai Glacier - trekking is possible, but equipment is really
Adygene gorge - to the right of the
gate at the base camp - walk leads past cemetery for "fallen"
mountaineers, including one who is buried outside the boundaries
because he committed suicide, cutting himself free to save his
comrades rather than pull them down with him. The path continues
for 7 m under the Adygene glacier.
Main Canyon - straight up from the gate
at the base camp - following a jeep track for 18 km to a
ski base with 2 drag lifts. It is possible to visit and simply
relax, or to organize light walking, 1 or 2 day's trekking -
or horse-riding. Top
- (southern shore of the Issyk-Kul). Ala-Bash
is a small mountain, dotted with sharp black
and red cliffs, which proudly stands in the center
of the valley. By the south - eastern foot of the Ala-Bash
was once a medieval village, the ruins of which are clearly
visible from the slopes. Many Petroglyphs with hunting
scenes and images of wild goats remained on the mountain.
At the foot of the mountain is a rock with carved Buddhist mantra
"Om Mani Padme Hum" on it. Top
Pass. At 3184 m one of the major
passes on the Bishkek Osh road at the
top of the Chichkan gorge. Top
Ala-Kul (also known
as Ala-Kol, Alakul, Alakel), Lake (3532m). In Kyrgyz
it is "Colourful Lake", Issyk-Kul. The lake is located in the
upper reaches of Kurgaktor, the right tributary of Karakol. It
is a moraine-glacial lake. The color of the water varies depending
on the weather. The lake is located between the gorges of the Arashan
and Karakol, beneath the Ala-Kul pass. The lake is located 12
km from Karakol. It is possible to ascend to it via the valley
of the Karakol river. Top
pass. Issyk-Kul. It is 3850 m high. It comes from Keldyk valley
(river valley of Arashan) to Ala-Kul lake. Top
mountain. Ala-Myshyk is translated as a "Colourful Cat".
This mountain is located 6 km west of Naryn town, and 250
m from the Naryn transponder installed on the northern slope.
Mount Ala-Myshyk considered sacred and revered by Kyrgyz people.
It has a sanctuary - Mazar, named after the legendary women
- Myuyyuzdyuyu baybiche, progenitor of bugintsev. There is also
an object of worship as a lone juniper. There is Ala-Myshyk cave
within the mountain, which is a State Geological Preserve. At the
entrance, round hallway is covered with bones of animals, mostly
with bones of horses. The cavity of the cave goes several steps back
of the mountain. The length of the cave is 162 m and the depth of it
is 65 m. The cave has a rather complicated configuration - a relatively
large cavities connected by narrow corridors. There are piles of small
rock debris. The floor cavity consists of several small rooms cut
into the thick limestone. Halls and passages of the cave are decorated
with stalactites and stalagmites of unusual bright red hues. The
entrance, which is facing south-west, offers a beautiful panorama
of the Naryn valley. Top
valley. Alai Valley is an intermontane depression
within the Pamir-Alai mountain range in Kyrgyzstan. The Pamir
(in the south) is separated from the Gissar-Alai ( in the north),
they extend from the west to the east between the Alai and the
Zaalai range of 150 km. The Alai Valley ranges from 8 to 25 km and
is an area of about 1,700 square km. It is as of 2240 m high in the
west to 3536 m high in the east (Taunmuruk pass).
The Alai Valley is very picturesque.
It has many alpine pastures. The grass is particularly
dense and high on the pastures of the eastern part of the
valley. The grand wall of the Zaalai range portrays an incredible
view; the wall which towers over the valley 3,000 - 3,500 meters.
In the foothills of the Zaalai range, on the overgrown grass of ancient
moraines, countless blue lakes are visible.
There is an easy access to the
Alai Valley from the city of Osh. The roads of the Alai
Valley are commonly used by climbers and tourists in order to
get to the mountains of Kichik-Alai, West Zaalai, Central Zaalai
(including Lenin Peak District), and East Zaalai (including Kurumdy
area). It is possible to get to Pamir from Osh through the Alai
Valley. Finally, it is possible to drive into Kashgar mountains
(Chinese Pamir) to the Kongur and Muztag-Ata region through Irkeshtam
The main population of the Alai
Valley are Kyrgyz nationals. However, the village of Sary-Mogol
is inhabited by Pamirs, which is under the administrative authority
of the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region, and is actually supplied
with food and consumer goods from Horog.
As a rule, there is an active
regime of the border zone. Therefore, tourists and mountaineers
must obtain a pass before visiting the valley. Top
gorge. The Alamedin valley
is one of the most striking features of the
Kyrgyz Krebet, just South of Bishkek. The village
of Koi-Tash, 30 km from Bishkek, is the confluence
of four roads : one from the capital; another
which climbs to the West over the ridge, past Golubinyi
Waterfall (Pigeon'sor Dove Waterfall) to Kashka-Suu
in the Ala-Archa valley; a third to the East towards
Issyk-Ata, and the fourth leading upto the main
Alamedin valley. The canyon narrows and the stream,
one of the main rivers flowing through Bishkek, cascades
down to the Chui plain.
further on is the Teplye Klyuchi Sanatorium.
On a territory of the camp there are
a swimming pool and several mineral springs.
At a height of 1800 meters asl there
is a bathouse with naturally, radon, heated
water - (Take the advice of the doctors and
restrict swimming in the pool to no more than
about 10 minutes.) - and a complex of cottages
further up the road, which was opened in 1984 by the then
Ministry of Power. The water in the swimming pool is
Beyond the complex
the vista opens out into a beautiful
alpine valley - ideal for a day trip out
from the city - and there is a trekking route
over the mountains. There are waterfalls, glades
with berries, mushrooms, juniper and birch forests
and views of glaciers and the Usechenko peak (4650
m), as well as a number of other canyons to the East.
a Community Based project in the Alamedin
valley which can offer accommodation
and other services. Top
Alexandrovka. To the
West of Bishkek, are a number of burial
mounds scattered about the farmland.
These are the last resting places for a some
of the nobility of the ancient Sak and Usun
tribes that settled in the Chui valley between the
7th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Top
Issyk-Kul. Rapoport alley starts from Cholpon-Ata town
to Baktuu-Dolonotu. The length of the alley is more than 4,5
km. Trees, such as silver poplar (which dominate this area) and
elm, were planted in 1934, by the workers of a horse farm on the
initiative of their first director Leonid Rapoport (1899-1952).
The trees are firmly planted in
2 rows on either side of the road. The trees of the outside
row lean away, whereas the inner row of trees is growing high
above the highway forming a tunnel. Top
Almaluu. In this village
at the foot of the mountains, South
West of Kemin, are some ancient burial
Ananyevo. Some 52 kilometers
east of Cholpon-Ata, lies the village
of Ananyevo, which is named after one of
the Heroes of the Soviet Union, who as one of
the 28 Panfilov Heroes died defending a small
village outside Moscow against invading German tanks
in 1941. He was born in the village and there is a memorial
to him with a small park just off the main street.
the North of the village, at the foot of
an 18 kilometer canyon, lies the hamlet
of Chet Baisoorun. There area couple of
other small canyons nearby, (Tegirmenty - at
13 kilometers long, and Orto Baisoorun - at 17 kilometers
long). The area is forested and the glades and rivers
make attractive countryside.
to the East, archaeologists have discovered
the remains of an ancient settlement.
are legends about incalculable wealth
concealed in caves near the Burgan
Suu waterfall. Top
Arabel syrty. Plateau space is
situated at altitudes ranging from 3,500 to 4,000 meters.
Permafrost fills all the space within Arabel valley.
There are many stunningly beautiful lakes at syrty. Most of
them are located at the foot of Terskey Ala-Too, on the left
bank of the Arabel-Suu river. Here there are 50 lakes. Spatially,
the lakes are combined into three groups: Arabel - by the same-named
pass in the upstream of the source of Arabel-Suu; Jashi-Kel - 2
km to the south of the pass Barskoon and Juuku - in the watershed
of the same-named river, flowing into Issyk-Kul lake, and the sources
of the left tributary, Chontor, which flows in a deep narrow
canyon. The lake basins of a glacial origin and are located on the
smoothed, denudation surface of syrt uplands. The lakes are shallow
and of the most diverse shapes. The largest lake south of the pass
Arabel. The water surface is 0.45 sq. km. The maximum level is
observed in the summer, thus water levels fall in the winter season.
All the lakes are frozen from October to May. Top
Arashan, gorge. A dene of
Arashan river is located at 10 km distant to the
east from Karakol town. There is Ak-Suu village (in
former time called as Teplokluchenka) in the early flow of
the Arashan river. It got name according to a lot of springs
around, located next to the village. The water contains some
radon and used for a treatment of some ailments of nerve system.
The gorge gets wider after the village and its left slope
is covered by fir trees forest. Arashan gorge is very pictorial.
There is a resort “Altyn-Arashan” (“Gold well”) on the right
side of river at an altitude 2600 m, in the wide valley with fir
forest, green meadows, fragrant flowers. The resort was organized
in 1963 on the base of hot springs with an elevated content of
minerals and radioactivity.
There is a tributary of Arashan - Anyr-Tor –
with a beautiful lake (with some sea salt water)
to the right side up to the river. The other sights
of Arashan valley are: ice lake Kashka-Suu with some
salt sea water next to the north icehouse of the top, Ak-Suu
wall and water fall on Ak-Suu river - an upper tributary
of Arashan. Some water falls as Sharkyratma, Tash-Tekteer,
Kuldurek are very beautiful. A lake Ala-Kol is very
popular and located at an altitude of 3532 m above sea
level. Along a way to a nearby valley Kara-Kol. The upper part
of the gorge is locked by a giant, trapeze like top Ak-Suu
wall (5022 m) and to the east - an apex Soviet Russia (4900 m).
There is a Teplokluchenska zoological preserve in that area with
an access to the license hunting in the autumn time. Top
petroglyphs. Osh region. Aravan petroglyphs are located
on a cliff on the right bank of the same-named river, on the
outskirts of the Aravan village. Large images of 2 pairs of horses
seem to be mares and stallions. Next to the images of horses, on
the steep rock cliff, you can see tiny figures of goats or deer with
a bird's beak, as well as the figure of a hunter with a taut bow. There
are abstract images, reminiscent of a horseshoe or letters of runic
alphabet. These petroglyphs are typical for the ancient Saka tribes,
suggesting that material culture has spread to these places, perhaps
long before the emergence of the ancient state of Davan, and the Ferghana
valley was one of the oldest regions of the formation of human civilization.
Unique natural tract with historical artifacts, as often happens,
in more recent times has become a sacred place, revered by pilgrims.
It is called Duldul Ata in Aravan, and appears to be associated with
the cult of Hazrat Ali, places of worship, which are distributed
throughout the outskirts of the Fergana Valley. Top
Archaluu (A Place with Many
Junipers). Madaniyat village, Karakoyon gorge, Talas region.
No guardian. Type of mazar – juniper. The height of
the mazar is 28 meters. It is located on a peak. There, there is
a 7-8 meter long single juniper. It is not a regular juniper, but
juniper that grows in a trailing fashion, so it is called creeping
juniper (japalak archa). It has been there since long ago. Below, at
the foot of the peak, there are 15 small junipers that grow out from
the underground root of the big juniper. The roots of the juniper at the
base have come out on the surface – they are very thick and prominent.
Arkyt. The village
is well laid out, relatively well maintained
and looks picturesque and is located
within the boundaries of the Sary-Chelek
reserve (Bio-diversity reserve) and, as such,
offers a good base for visitors to the region
with wide views on the surrounding mountains;
an attractive river running through it; animals
grazing freely; almost no cars and traffic; friendly
people; fresh local produced food available and
is relatively cool in summer and protected in winter.
is a museum is situated in a building next
to the reserve administration office
which contains a topographical model of the reserve,
stuffed animals, insects and birds, and
examples of different kind of trees and their timber.
Labelling and descriptions are in Russian.
Arslanbob Valley is located at the south
of the Kyrgyz Republic and contains one of the
most beautiful health resorts. Arslanbob is a unique
creation of nature and is situated at 1600 meters
above sea level. The main treasure of these southern
forests is the walnut tree. The tree lives up to 1000
years, reaches enormous size and fructifies abundantly.
Its leaves and fruits have curative qualities and are full
of vitamins, microelements, and other nutrients. Valuable furniture
and various hand-made items come from the walnut wood.
Muslims consider the picturesque fruit forests sacred. According
to legend, in the ancient times there lived an extremely hardworking
man called Arslanbob who served the prophet Muhammad. And
those who visit the forest take away with them a bit of paradise.
Attractions include horseback or
trekking trips to the Big or Small Waterfall,
agriculture tours with participatory herb-collecting,
and hikes to Sacred Mirror Lake and Sacred Stone,
important pilgrimage sites for Central Asian Muslims.
Is there anyone, who has not heard about the famous walnut
forests of Arslanbob? Long ago Alexander the Great's
fighters passed through here and some of them took the
fruits they liked back to their distant motherland,
which was the beginning of nut forests in Greece. Top
mausoleum. It is located near the south-eastern base of
Suleyman Mountain, in Osh. This is a XVIII century monument.
According to Muslim legend, it was built over the tomb of the
vizier - the Suleyman king. It is interesting that a building
on a Suleyman Mountain is connected with Jewish sites. One of the
musicians-priests at St. David's harp and altar in the Temple
of King Solomon called Azef Ben Berkia. Consonant with the name
is a monument of medieval architecture - the mausoleum in Osh, the
hallowed name of Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, which mistakenly believed to
be associated with this city "activities, the life and work". This
fact, according to the legend, is recorded back in the thirteenth
century by Jamal al-Karshi, stating that the vizier of Solomon, Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya,
was to bury himself at the foot of a mountain. Apparently, his
will was carried out and a small construction was built over his
grave. It was found that the foundation of this mausoleum, existing
to date, served as the construction of pre-Islamic times, but
its modern form, the building acquired only in the eighteenth century.
All this time, Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, like other "Jewish" sites of
a Suleyman Mountain, is a place of worship for Muslims. Top
Ashar (means a 'tenth' in Arabic).
This is a natural (and sometimes financial) tax in Muslim countries.
It used to be charged annually on products of agriculture, livestock,
fishing and crafts. In Kyrgyzstan, ashar serves as a way of uniting people
for the joint execution of specific types of farm work and the fair distribution
of the crop or income between them. Central to these is the solidarity
of the relatives, members of the clan or tribe. Currently, ashar is a
universal way to mobilise people for the grant implementation of socially
important work in which the state lacks funds. Free of charge, that is,
by ashar, bridges, roads, schools, irrigation and many other similar constructions
are built. Top
hillfort. Ashpara is located on the border of Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan to the north-west of the village Chaldybar,
Panfilov area, Chui region. It refers to the VI-XII centuries.
Ashpara is also mentioned under this name in written sources in
IX- XIV centuries. Numerous objects are found in Ashpara, they are
made of clay, iron, bronze, bone and stone. Objects of interest are
those, which confirm that there were works carried out on strengthening
Ashpara, orders which came from Timur (Tamerlan). Top
At-Bashi valley. It is bounded by At-Bashi mountain
range in the south, by the ridges of Naryn-Too and Baibiche-Too in the
north and Jaman-Too in the west. The valley is being closed by Ak-Beit
pass (3282 m) in the south-west,and in the north-east there are narrow
gates of the gorge near the village of Bosogo. Here, in the northern,
more humid part of the valley, is At-Bashi river and there are scenic pine
In the valley, there are several villages, among which the largest
district centre has the same name as At-Bashi valley. At-Bashi village
stands on the settlement of VIII-XIV centuries. Within 12 km from the village,
on the left bank of the river Kara-Koyun, flowing into the river At-Bashi,
is a Koshoi-Korgon settlement. It represents the remains existed in the VII-X
centuries on the caravan trade route of the fortress city, which had a rate
of Turkic khans.
A republican road goes through the valley from Naryn to Torugart (3752
m), through Ak-Beyit pass, skirting the mountain Kara-Suu, past Chatyr-Kul
lake to the border post. Top
At-Bashi, river. Is
the first major left-bank tributary of Naryn river. The river
is 178 km and its catchment area is 5540 km². The sources of the
river At-Bashi lie at an altitude of 4542 meters above sea level,
at the junction of the mountains, Naryn-Too and the mountain range
of Borkoldoi, where the river is called Zhanyzher. The sources of
that river are the streams that feed from glaciers. Top
At-Bashi, a mountain range in
the southern part of Inner Tien-Shan. At-Bashi stretches
from the west - from the north-west to the east - north-east,
separating the Bashi basin in the north from the Chatyrkel
basin and Aksay syrty in the south. The length of it is 135
km and it is 4786 m high. It is made of Paleozoic metamorphic
schists, limestone, sandstone and partly igneous rocks (granite,
syenite). There are ice formations on top of the crest, and
modern glaciers the area of which is around 150 square km.
Mountain-meadows and subnival landscapes dominate the area.
Power Station (HPS). The installed capacity of this station
is 40 MW. It was commissioned in December 1970. At-Bashi HPS is
located in a high-mountainous Naryn district in Naryn region on
the river At-Bashi. The Hydroelectric Power Station has a reservoir
with a daily regulation, with useful volume of 7 million cubic meters.
Estimated water consumption of the HPS is 70.4 cubic meters / sec.
At-Bashi station is located at an altitude of 1900 meters above sea
level. The hydro-unit is mixed in the narrow canyon at the exit of
the river At-Bashi in the Naryn valley. In the alignment of the dam,
the width of the canyon is only between 5-8 m. The sides of the gorge
are 30 m high, almost vertical, with a slope of 80-85 degrees.The site
of hydroelectric facilities falls into an earthquake zone, magnitude
of 8.0. The HPS dam is 79 m high, covered with local gravel-pebble soil
and stone. There is a diaphragm placed at the top part made of a polyethylene
film-0.6mm that acts as a unique impervious device. There are 4 hydro-units
at 10000 kW each. Average annual output is 130-160 mln. kW/h. electricity.
Atake-biy (born in 1738,
with a full name of Atake Batyr Tynai Biy Uulu) - he was biy, who
was in charge of sarybagysh tribe in the Chu Valley in the second
half of XVIII century. In the years of 1718-1722, the land of Kyrgyz
people in pre-Issyk-Kul, on the rivers of Chu and Talas were captured
by Dzhungar khanate. The Kyrgyz fled south, leaving their property.
The Kyrgyz tribes, led by Atake's father, Tynai-biy, stopped in the
region of Syrdarya river near the current city of Andijan and began
farming. After the death of Dzhungar Golden Tseren, civil war broke
out between different clans, which weakened their military and economic
power. The Kyrgyz began to return to their lands, pushing Dzhungars
out. Talas, Chu and Issyk-Kul valleys were freed. By that time, Atake
acquired a well recognized title of Batyr. To ensure the security and
peace, he was looking for a strong defense. In 1785, he sent his ambassadors
to Russia. The empress has kindly received the representatives of the
sarybagysh tribe and was sympathetic to their pleas. But this association,
between the sarybagysh tribe and the Government of the Russian Empire,
as a result of a complex internal and international situation, has remained
inconclusive. In 1825, Atake-biy was unable to withstand the onslaught of
the Kokand khanate, thus with part of the sarybagysh tribe, he moved to
Issyk-Kul changing his place of residence. Top