Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

A
Aalam Ordo
Abdrakhmanov Yusuf
Abdurahman Kuchakov
Abshir-Ata, waterfall
Abshir-Sai
Achik-Tash, camp
Achik-Tash, mining site
Achyk-Tash, valley
Adygene, gorge
Adzhiadar-Unkur, cave
Ahunbaev Isa
Aichurek Bulak
Aigul, flower
Aitmatov
Aitiev, Gapar
Ak-Beshim
Ak-Beit
Ak-Chunkur
Ak-Debe
Ak-Sai, valley, Chui
Ak-Sai, valley, Naryn
Ak-Shiyrak, ridge
Ak-Suu, Batken
Ak-Suu,
valley
Ak-Suu, pass
Ak-Suu (Semenovskoe)
Ak-Suu, resort
Ak-Suu, Chui
Ak-Talaa
Ak-Tash
Ak-Terek
Ak-Unkur
Akayev Askar
Ala-Archa, natural park
Ala-Archa, gorge
Ala-Bash,
valley
Ala-Bell
Ala-Kul (Ala-Kel), lake
Ala-Kul (Ala-Kel), pass
Ala-Myshyk
Alai, valley
Alamedin
Alexandrovka
Alley Rapoport
Almaluu
Ananievo

Animals
Arabel syrty
Arashan, gorge
Aravan, petroglyphs
Archaluu
Arkyt
Arslanbob
Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, mausoleum
Ashar
Ashpara, hillfort
At-Bashi, valley
At-Bashi, river
At-Bashi, range
At-Bashi HPS
Ata-Beyit
Atake-biy



Aalam Ordo, cultural and ethnographic center. It is located 8 km east of Kadji-Sai, the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake. According to the author of the cultural center, Tashkul Kereksiz, Aalam Ordo should become a kind of "center of the Universe", combining the principal human values. (He was the author of "Cultural Center Ruh Ordo Tashkul Ata, which was built on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul in the resort area of Cholpon-Ata).
Those interested can get acquainted here with virtually all Kyrgyz traditions and customs. In addition, this center will present the traditional symbols of the Kyrgyz nation - eagles, hawks and other animals. Top

Abdrakhmanov Yusuf (28/12/1901 - 05/11/1938). Abdrakhmanov was born in the village of Chirkei, Karakol district (Issyk-Kul region). His father - Abdrakhman Balapanov - manap, biy (or 'bey' - a traditionally applied title of a leader of a small tribe) and a 3-year parish steward. He was a participant in the uprising of 1916, during which he died from typhoid fever. Abdrakhmanov's mother and seven close relatives were killed in Naryn in suppressing the revolt. Abdrakhmanov was orphaned along with his younger brother - Toka (approximate birth year was 1909). He graduated from the 3-class' Russian-Tuzemny school (1912-1915) and also studied in Karakol town's high-primary institution (1915-1916), but he did not finish it. His wife - Gulya Abdrahmanovna (born approximately in 1903). Abdrakhmanov's sons: Anvar (born around 1921) and Alibek (born around 1923). In 1918, Yusuf joined ("signed up for") the All-Union Communist Party (AUCP(b)) in Vern, however due to his departure to Tashkent he was mechanically excluded. Abdrakhmanov re-joined the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in March 1919. In the 1920s, the instructor of staff of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), Yusuf Abdrakhmanov was involved in drawing up maps of the national-state demarcation of Turkestan. Yusuf enjoyed a great prestige of the Central Committee. He has been in civil war, involved with in a military operation in the League. Abdrakhmanov took the initiative to create a single Kyrgyz-Karakalpak autonomy from the Issyk-Kul to the Aral Sea with its center in the town of Jalal-Abad. Yusuf led various evidence, but the critical of all was the epic of Manas. Manas was sung and recited in Karakol, in Pishpek and Osh counties! First, Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous region was founded, then the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Yusuf Abdrakhmanov fought for the idea of self-determination of Kyrgyz people. From 1919 to 1927, he worked in various positions. From March 1927 to October 1933 - he was the Chairman of People's Commissars of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1933, Abdrakhmanov was accused of nationalism, he was therefore dismissed and expelled from the party. He worked at the level of the "grassroots work" in Samara and Orenburg cities. Yusuf was arrested on 4 April, 1937 in Orenburg. He was drawn to the affair of the "Social Turanian party." He was then deported to Frunze, where he was sentenced to the highest punishment and shot on the night of 5 to 6 November 1938. Top

Abdurahman Kuchakov (his real name is Karganbai Apkuchakov) - leader of the first Kyrgyz Embassy in Russia in 1785-1788, respectively. In the spring of 1785 Atakeh-biy - the top biy of Sarybagysh tribe - sent Abdurahman Kuchakov and Shergazy to Russia as ambassadors. Atakei-biy sought the patronage of Russia through Kyrgyz ambassadors and, in turn, took the duties of the free transmission of trading caravans from Russia to Central Asia and in the opposite direction of the properties under his possession. On 23 August, 1785, Abdurahman Kuchakov and Shergazy arrived to Omsk. In January 1787, they were welcomed by Ekaterina II. Abdurahman Kuchakov died on 20 June, 1789 on his way back, in Petropavlovsk. Top

Abshir-Ata. Abshir-Ata is a waterfall, which is classed a sanctuary of nature. It is located in the Nookat district of Osh region on the Abshir-Sai river, 3 km above the mouth of the canyon through which flows this river. The water cascades down the right side of a steep canyon (height 12-15 m) into the main river channel. The water is slightly mineralised containing calcium and magnesium. There is Kotur-Bulak spring source located within the vicinity of the waterfall. Top

Abshir-Sai, tract. It lies at an altitude from 1500 to 2500 meters above sea level. In a picturesque canyon with steep rocky slopes on the eponymous river, 70 km from the city of Osh there is the famous waterfall Abshir-Ata, which is a unique creation of nature. From the rounded opening of approximately 2-meter diameter in sheer hundred-meter wall, water dust bursts out with the noise and falls down from 30-meter height. The waterfall water known as holy and has medicinal properties. Pilgrims come from afar to bathe in the sprays of this waterfall as well as to collect the water in bottles. This place got its name from the first settlements of the Tajiks and it translates as "water and milk" source from Tajik. One of the legends says that in ancient times, Tajiks and Kyrgyz lived in the canyon in poverty. Once upon a time, a traveler came to them, and said that he is the messenger of God. People questioned: "If you are holy, create a miracle". Then the stranger hit the stick on the rock, and milk came out from the rock. The residents were pleased and blessed this place. Religious people came from different countries in order to see and bow down to the miraculous power of the source. People became so accustomed to this miracle that they have ceased to cherish it, women began to wash things in the holy spring source. Apparently, the higher powers got offended by it, then the mountaineers discovered that instead of milk, normal water was pouring out.
Near the waterfall there is a spring source known as Kotur-Bulak with crystal clear cool water. It is located inside a large karts cave on the left cliff canyon. Water gushes out under the rocks and is considered to be curative. Abshir-Sai lake is located 10 meters away, from which river Abshir-Sai is filtered through the dam. In the valley of Abshir-Sai rock paintings can be found. One group is located 5 km south of Kek-Jar village, the other is about 20 km south of the Abshir-Ata waterfall at the source of the river. Top

Achik-Tash. Achik-Tash is the base camp for climbers at the peak of Lenin. In translation from Kyrgyz it means "Open Stone", and it is open every year from 20 June to 10 September.
It is a complex consisting of two camps - basic and advanced. Overall management and coordination of work groups is carried out by two chiefs over the two camps.
Base Camp is located on the picturesque glade near a stream with a view of the northern slopes of Lenin Peak at an altitude of 3600m above sea level. There are moraine lakes all around the camp. Accommodation provided for customers in double tents is equipped with mattresses.
Eating facilities are located within yurts and is provided three times a day.
Communication with the outside world via satellite phone. The camp has a bar, shop, rental of sports equipment, sauna, the possibility of filling gas cans and luggage storage. There are television and disco club available. Advanced Base Camp is located on the left bank of the moraine at an altitude of 4400m under the northern slopes of Lenin Peak. Here, climbers live in large double tents, where they are given mats instead of mattresses to sleep on. Dining room is located in a yurt. Safety is ensured by climbing rescue team consisting of skilled climbers and rescuers, as well as an experienced physician. Communication between the camps is via radio. Top

Achik-Tash. Achik-Tash is a mining site. It is one of the famous climbing areas in the world. It is located in the central, the highest part, of Zaalayskiy (or Chon-Alai) Range, on the border with Tajikistan. The mountain complexes are powerful glaciers and peaks: Dzerzhinsky (6,716 m), Kyzyl-Agyn (6,663 m) and Estonia (6202 m). The highest and most popular point of the mountain site Achik-Tash is Lenin peak, 7134 m in height. In the area of strong glaciation, the slopes of the hills are covered with ice and snow. The ascendance of heights is up to 3000 m. The routes are not technically difficult, mainly snowy and snow-icy. This provides an excellent opportunity to make high-altitude climbing, even without high technical training. The climate here is much milder than in the Tien-Shan. Average temperatures in July and August are 10 ° C. Most rain falls in April - early June, much less in August-September. The base camp can be reached by car from the city of Osh on a mountain road through the pass Taldyk (3615 m), distance of 220 km. Apart from Achik-Tash, Lenin Peak can also be reached from a nearby ravine, Kamansu, through the vertex split. At Achik-Tash, you may find a large number of expeditions and base camps climbers from around the world during the summer period, whereas from Kamansu side, Lenin Peak is rarely walked through, although the time to climb it is the same, route is safer and you can reach the base camp by car. From the field of edelweiss, located in the tract of Achik-Tash, which is also the starting point of all ascents seventhousander, opens a panorama of the mountainous region. Top

Achik-Tash. A high mountain valley, to the South East of Kochkor, offering treks along the Savan river and a visit to the Kel-Ukok lake («Lake in a Chest»). From the Kara-Tor Peak there is a panoramic view across to Lake Issyk-Kul. Top

Adygene, gorge. It’s a left tributary of Ala-Archa. Adygene river falls into Ala-Archa from the west much lower the camp. It takes approximately an hour to the Adygene waterfall from Ala-Archa along the river. The path always lies on the right bank. This beach is covered in fir trees, which is a beautiful decor within the gorge. At the terminal moraine of the glacier there is a convenient platform for a large camp, the so-called "Elektro" parking. It has a stream with clean water. Vertex Adygene is located in the upper valley of the same name on the northern slope in the central part of the Kyrgyz Range. It is the highest point of Dzhalamyshsky spur. Between the Adygene peak and the Electro peak lies Adygene Pass (4030 m). To the west of the peak Adygene is a short crest.
Western slopes of the tops cut off by steep rock walls. The northern slope is a hanging glacier, turning into glacier known as Tez-Tor. Vertex Adygene is clearly visible from Ala-Archa and from the city of Bishkek, where the vertex looks like a pyramid of ice. To ascend to the top of Adygene can be carried out from the Adygene pass. The ascent to the pass from the Electro parking takes 3-4 hours. The path for ascent to the Adygene peak goes from the pass to the eastern snow ridge, the overall steepness of which is about 30 degrees. The crest intersects the two ridges of rock. The first of these requires a bypass on the left side. The vertex represents an elongated snowy ground with rocks on its west end. Top

Ahunbaev, Isa (1908-1975). He was a Soviet surgeon, academician and the first president of the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR. Since 1948, Ahunbaev was a director of the Kyrgyz Medical Institute and the Head of the Department of General Surgery (since 1946). His main works were devoted to the study of endemic goitre, appendicitis in children and echinococcosis. He was an initiator of the lung surgery in Kyrgyzstan. Top

Aichurek Bulak. Ak Jar village, Talas region. Talas. Guardian – Esengul Jumanazarov. Type of mazar – spring. On the right side of the road to Ak Jar village, 500 meters away in the direction of the forest. 30 meters to the east, there is a lake. Aichurek Apa Bulak is 700 meters above the lake. Top

Aitmatov, Chingiz Torekulovich, is a writer (1928-2008). He was born in Sheker village in Talas region. His father, Torekul Aitmatov, was a prominent statesman, arrested in 1937 and executed in 1938. His mother, Nagima Hamzievna Abdulvalieva, was Tatar in nationality and an actress in a local theater.
Chingiz graduated from eighth grade and entered Jambul Zoo Technical Institute, which he completed with honors. In 1948, Aitmatov entered the Agricultural Institute in Frunze and graduated in 1953. In 1952 he started publishing stories in Kyrgyz language in local newspaper. Upon finishing University he worked in Agricultural Research Institute in cattle breading for three years and continued to write and publish short stories. In 1956 he entered courses in literature to continue higher education in Moscow and graduated in 1958. In the year he graduated, he published a story “Face to face” in the magazine “October” which was translated from Kyrgyz. Same year other short stories were published in a magazine “New world” and also a novel “Jamila” which brought him worldwide fame. From 1990-1991, he was the ambassador of the Soviet Union in Luxemburg. From 1992-1994 he was a Kyrgyz ambassador in Russia and from 1995-2008 in Belgium, Luxemburg, and Netherlands.
He earned 46 awards in different countries. He created 17 novels. Twelve films were based on his work. Top

Aitiev, Gapar Aitievich (1912-1984) - he was one of the first Soviet Kyrgyz artists and a national artist of Kyrgyz SSR and USSR. He was a member-correspondent of Academy of Arts of USSR. He studied at the Moscow Art Academy (1935-1938) of N. P. Krymov. Aitiev was a member of the Great Patriotic War. He was a chairman of the Union of Artists of Kyrgyzstan. Since 1977, he headed a creative workshop of painting in Frunze. He was an author of poetic landscapes, a number of portraits, genre paintings and monumental paintings. Top

Ak-Beshim (Suyab). Situated on the eastern edge of Tokmok - near to the Bus Station, Ak-Beshim was once one of the most important trade and cultural centers in the Chui valley, inhabited by the Turks and Sogdians. Archaeologists date the origin of the town to the 5th and 6th Centuries. It was, in fact. Referred to by the Buddhist monk, Tripitaka (602-644), in his account of his travels. It later came under Arab influence and faded into history in the period between the 10th and 12th centuries. Today all that remains are eroded ridges and grass covered mounds - although Archaelogists have conducted several excavations and revealed much about the thriving city.
There were paved and pebbled streets, water pipes made from tiles, Buddhist temples a church and a fortress. Top

Ak-Beit Pass (3285 m). At the Southern end of the At-Bashi range - it is 4 kilometers from the outer check post on the road to Torugart - where you enter the border zone. Top

Ak-Chunkur, cave, 3105 m and is also called “the White hole. It is located 7 km east of the village Echkili-Tash, on the right bank of the river Sary-Jaz, in the limestone cliff. The cave consists of the two levels and starts in a large room. Its width is 8-9m, height 1,4-2 m and 3-4 m in some places. The ceiling of the cave is steep and is fitting to the bedding layers of limestone. The length of the entire cave is 40-45 m. The most ancient monuments of art, drawings of people and animals, are found on the walls and ceilings of the cave. The drawings capture hunting and dancing scenes made by the artists using red ocher 5-10 thousand years ago, at the turn of Mesolithic and Neolithic era. The contours of the drawings are made by using a thumb. They are located in separate groups on the walls of the cave. There are copies of 14 drawings made. There are two fat women, seven dancing hunters, mountain goats, and snakes. The palette of the artist from the Stone Age was also found here, a hollow goat horn filled with oil.
The cave is not suitable for occupancy. There were no signs that a man used this place for a daily life. It was used most likely as an ancient temple where magical rites were performed. Stone tools from VI-V thousand years B.C. were also found here during excavation.
Unfortunately, numerous drawings have been destroyed by many tourists visiting this site. The smoke from the burning fires and torches has also added to the damage.
A small lake lies not far from the cave. Right above the village is Ak-Bulak canyon, where gold and silver was mined. There are many small canyons and trails through the mountains to the Almaty. Top

Ak-Debe. In the North-western corner of the oblast, South of Taraz (Kazakhstan), just inside the border, archeologists have discovered the site of an ancient settlement dating from between the 6th and 7h centuries. Also known as Dzhoon-Debe.Top

Ak-Sai, valley. Chui region. Ak-Sai River is one of the major tributaries of Ala-Archa. The Ak-Sai district is frequently visited by novice climbers as well as contenders for prizes in competitions in climbing the highest level for many decades now. Groups of hikers and climbers from around the world come annually to Kyrgyzstan to visit this unique mountain area. The path to the mountainous district of Ak-Sai starts from Ala-Archa gorge. The trail through the forest with pyramidal firs and blue archa on the left side slopes is within three hours and brings us right to the foot of the Ak-Sai glacier parking base Ratsek. There is a comfortable stone hut at an altitude of 3200 m. The rocks, waterfall, creek and the earthy grass-cover make a great rest-point after climbing in this beautiful place. Parking Ratsek is one of the main places for climbers and hikers base. A few hours walk from Ratsek are three other small huts. One is located on the moraine of the glacier 'Teacher' under the walls of the first tower of Crown and buttresses Semenov Tien-Shan. Two other - "koronskie" or Crown huts (3700 m) are located on the moraine, where Crown glacier flows into the Ak-Sai.
Alpine huts, located in different parts of the gorge, make routes of short duration-less than an hour. Walls of Free Korea and the Crown are the most attractive in the Ak-Sai valley.
The northern slope of the Ak-Sai valley overgrown with high Tien Shan firs. Mouth of the river Ak-Sai ,where it flows into Ala-Archa, represents as a large mudflow debris cone.
The Ak-Sai glacier largely determines the microclimate of the area - its harsh and cold. The Ak-Sai valley has more than eighty skilled routes from 1 to 6B categories of complexity. About 30 - Routes of 5-6 category of difficulty. This means some serious walls in the area. Rock-icy walls go up to 900 meters: Semenov Tian-Shan (4875 m) - the highest in the region; the Crown (4860 m); Free Korea (4740m); Baylyan-Bashi (4700m); Simagina (4400 m), Bocks (4240 m). The buttresses of Baychechekey (4515 m) are not of a less beauty either. Also this region has a unique training base. Top

Ak-Sai, valley. Naryn region. Ak-Sai is a broad highland valley between two mountain ranges, limited to the border area between At-Bashi and Torugart. To visit this valley a special permit is required. Roads in the Ak-Sai passable mainly by an SUV. There is an ancient human settlement of Neolithic period.
The Ak-Sai basin is considered to be a pole of cold in Kyrgyzstan, where the hydro-meteorological station of Ak-Sai (3135m) has recorded the lowest air temperature (-53.6 °C) at an average January temperature of -27.7 °C. The valley was overgrown with a short but very thick grass, replete with swamps and lakes. The Ak-Sai valley is an important ground for hunting tourism. The object of hunting is predominantly mountain Marco Polo sheep and ibex. The hunting bases are concentrated in that valley as well as the adjacent valleys. Top

Ak-Shiyrak, the ridge. The area is located south of the middle part of Terskey Ala-Too, its approximate border is between areas of Jety-Oguz in the east and Dzhuuka in the west (east of the pass Barskaun). The area is approximately 60 km in length and 28 km wide. The inner part of the array has a typical alpine look with narrow rocky ridges. Translated from the Kyrgyz word meaning "Shiyrak" - shin bone (tibia). Ak-Shiyrak - is a phrase usually used in relation to sheep and means "white-leg".
Ak-Shiyrak - is one of the most compact units of glaciation of the Central Tien-Shan Mountains, and about 46% of its area covered by glaciers. The total number of glaciers in the Ak-Shiyrak is more than 150, where the area of glaciers is about 430 sq km; glacier tongues are arranged from 3700 m to 4100 m. The snow line is at an altitude of 4100-4150 m in the west of the array, which has a more pronounced effect of moist air masses brought by the part of the Issyk-Kul passes through Terskey Ala-Too, and rises to 4500-4550 m in the east of the Ak-Shiyrak. The most significant glaciers in the array of Ak-Shiyrak are Petrova (Kumtor-Naryn pool - 11 km and the area of 69 sq km); North Karasaj (Karas Naryn pool - 12 km and the area of 49 sq km), Jamal-Su (Sary pool - 10 km and the area of 39 sq km), Kaindy (or Koyandy, Sary pool - 8 km and the area of 24 sq km). The climbers' range, Ak-Shiyrak, is visited very rarely. Thus, there are opportunities to make first ascents. The highest point of Ak-Shiyrak is 5,126 m (located in the eastern part of the array) - a nameless summit.
Ak-Shiyrak's climate is continental, dry and extremely harsh - in syrty, October temperatures are up to -20C, and winter temperatures can drop to -50C. Weather station "Tien-Shan" is located at syrty at an altitude of 3700 m. Closer to the lake is located lower end of the face of Petrova glacier, located at the Kyrgyz-Canadian gold mining plant "Kumtor". The area around the mine is guarded. To reach Ak-Shiyrak can be possible by on-road vehicles through the Barskaun path. In order to visit the southern part of the Ak-Shiyrak, it may be required to have a special frontier-pass. Top

Ak-Suu. Batken region. The Ak-Suu tour camp is located at 5335 metres a. s. l. some 80 km from the regional centre near the Kara-Suu river and has hosted a number of mountaineering expeditions. Top

Ak-Suu, valley. Ak-Suu is 12 kilometers east of Karakol city. Above “Teplokluchenka” research station is the Arashan river that flows into Ak-Suu valley. Above the bifurcation, the Ak-Suu river flows as gray and red granite in the narrow gorge. The width of the bottom of the gorge is 30-40m and the height of the slopes is up to 300 m. Resort Ak-Suu is located at about 3km from the river, at an altitude of 1920 m. Nearby it, thermal (31-57°C) radon sources flow from the cracks of granite rocks. There is treatment available here, which is carried out since 1990s of the 19 century. Above the resort, the Ak-Suu valley is rapidly growing, the lower slopes are covered with picturesque clumps of Tien-Shan fir, the tributaries flow down from the slopes of both valleys as waterfalls. Top

Ak-Suu, pass. Issyk-Kul. This pass is located in the central part of the Kungei Ala-Too, between the upper river - Chon-Ak-Suu, (the basin of the Issyk-Kul lake), and Ak-Suu river (a tributary of the river Chon-Kemin, Chu basin). North-west of the pass lies the glacier Ak-Suu (northern slope Kungei Ala-Too), and south-east – the upper reaches of the river Chon-Ak-Suu. According to the geomorphological type - this is an ice destructive pass, i.e. it was initially subject to erosion by the river, and then it was processed by the Pleistocene glacier, probably of a ďĺđĺě¸ňíîăî type. The pass connects the upper reaches of Chonkemin valley and Chon-Ak-Suu valley, as well as the Issyk-Kul basin. Top

Ak-Suu, canyon. Issyk-Kul. Also known as Semenovka after the village on the main road where the valley emerges. The canyon is some 25 kilometers long and an asphalt road leads some 15 kilometers into the mountains from the village of Semyenovka, (named after the Russian explorer, Petr Semenov «Tianshansky»), following the valley of the Chong Ak-Suu («Big White Water»), past the Kyrchyn tourbaza which used to have a 240-bed hotel, and other facilities. The road leads to a jailoo (mountain pasture) at 2010 metres above sea level and the connurbation with the Kichi Ak-Suu («Little White Water») river. The river flows some 34 kilometers from the glaciers in the mountain peaks down into lake Issyk Kul, through three small lakes, including Sutuu Bulak (which means «milky spring»). The jailoo was historically used as a meeting place for congresses of Kyrgyz elders. The Djel Karagey canyon is home to a Forest Reserve - with meadows and multi-cascade waterfalls. Here, from the end of June until the end of September there is a collection of yurts which offer a wide range of services. The «yurt village» is marketed as an ethnological experience. Half of the twenty yurts are reserved for guests - and in the other half live several local families which provide the services, entertainment, etc. - so guests have a chance to experience authentic, traditional, elements of the Kyrgyz nomadic lifestyle. The yurts are all traditional - not like most of the yurt inns in Kyrgyzstan - for example, here you will end up sleeping on the floor under adiella - a sort of «duvet» - not in beds. Unfortunately, this also means that things like toitels, washing facilities and so on are also traditional. The of lack in modern conveniences, however, is more than made up for by the thoughtful programme - which explores the history, culture, crafts, food and games of the Kyrgyz people. It is possible to walk or take horses into the surrounding countryside; encounter half-wild yaks; watch demonstrations of crafts and horsemanship by masters; listen to traditional music; listen to a «manaschi» recite excerpts from the epic poem «Manas»; eat traditional foods; drink khoumis and even participate in putting up a yurt — an all round, authentic, Kyrgyz experience. Top

Ak-Suu. Chui. Ak-Suu is one of the valleys in the Kyrgyz Krebet. Traveling from Bishkek - this narrow canyon is best approached by turning towards the mountains after Belovodskoe and passing through the village of Kyzyl Dyykan. Here can be seen one of the first orthodox churches to be built in Central Asia. The road follows the stream bed deep into the mountains - and it is said that this is very good fishing country. Top

Ak-Talaa. Ninety kilometers to the West of Naryn. Famous as the birthplace of Togolok Moldo, who appears on the 20 som banknote, and for numerous thermal springs and therapeutic muds.
The Naryn river flows through this region and in places the water reaches speeds of 60 km/hour as it cascades between steep cliffs and enters narrows.
Ak Talaa provides access to the Southern route up to Lake Son-Kul. Past the mausoleum of Tailyk Batyr and climbing the steep hillsides by a winding route you emerge onto the plain with the lake in front of you. Top

Ak-Tash, a burial ground. Ak-Tash is located at the foot of the Kungei Ala-Too, north of the village of Sary-Kamysh. It consists of numerous groups of mounds. Small mounds are scattered in disarray and the big ones stretch in the chain-like way.
On the territory of the burial ground some stone sculptures are found. Among the mounds are boulders, many of them are carved figures of animals such as goats, camels, horses, etc. The cemetery was left by tribes of Saks, Usuns and ancient Turks. The cemetery was opened in 1982 by D.F. Vinnik. Top

Ak-Terek, hillfort. Located on the left bank of the Ak-Terek (Ton district, Issyk-Kul), in the northern village of Kyzyl-Tuu. The plan - a square fort, the length of the sides 54x54 m. The walls reinforced with towers. The cultural layer of negligible thickness. The finds are pottery X-XII centuries. Hillfort was the strengthening of the trade route that runs along the southern shore of Lake Issyk-Kul. Now is the built-up village of Kyzyl-Tuu. Surveyed in 1962 by DF Vinnik.
At 5 km south of the village of Kyzyl-Tuu on the left bank of the river Ak-Terek are carvings. On boulders and cliffs carved figures of animals: goats, deer, horses, camels, etc. Many of the drawings are made in the manner of the Scythian-Siberian animal style. The tract where there are rock paintings, was a sanctuary of ancient tribes that lived in the basin of the river Ak-Terek and surrounding areas, age II-I millennium BC. Opened in 1962, DF Vinnik. Top

Ak-Unkur. A cave by the river Bala Chichkan. Top

Akayev Askar, the first President of the Kyrgyz Republic. Born on 10 November, 1944 in the village of Vorontsovka, in Kemin district in the family of the farmer, Akai Tokoev. In 1961, Akayev graduated from high school with a golden medal. In 1968, he graduated with honors from the Leningrad Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics, then started his post-graduate studies. In 1980, he defended his doctoral dissertation at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. In 1984, he was elected as a corresponding member of Academy of Sciences in Kyrgyzstan, and in the same year, he became an Academician of the Academy of Sciences (AS) Kyrgyz SSR. Askar Akayev - Professor, Honorary Doctor of Sciences and foreign member of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), has about 150 scientific papers, 43 articles, and 7 inventions. He has prepared 20 candidates and three doctors. Seven of his students became laureates - winners of various prizes. According to the eminent specialist in the field of holography, Academician Yuri Denisyuk, - Askar Akayev, "was able to achieve dramatic results at the intersection of two areas - optics and computer technology, far ahead of his time." On 27, October, 1990 Akaev was elected as a President of Kyrgyz Republic. On 24 December, 1995 - he was re-elected for a second term. On 24 March, 2005 - as a result of a coup d'etat (Tulip Revolution), Akayev was overthrown from his post. On 5 April, 2005 - Akayev resigned as the president. According to the Kyrgyz Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Akayev works as a professor at Moscow State University, holding a post of chief scientific officer of the Institute of Mathematical Research of Complex Systems named I. R. Prigozhin.
In May 2006 - Akayev was elected as a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences for outstanding research in the field of optical information processing. In 2009 - he became Coordinator of the sub-program "Systematic analysis and mathematical modeling of global dynamics" of the Presidium of RAS.
Akayev family - relatives of Askar Akayev, played key roles in economic and political life in Kyrgyzstan during his residency. In particular, the Akaev clan controlled alcohol, market of combustive-lubricating and building materials. Damage from the Akayev's clan to the Kyrgyzstan's economy was estimated at $50 million. In particular, in the words of former Prime Minister, Tursunbek Chyngyshev, - in 1993, Akayev flew 1800 kg of gold out from Kyrgyzstan on a charter flight to Switzerland.
Akayev's family comes from an Abylai kind, which is included in a large tribal union of "sarybagysh" ("yellow elk"). Ancestral village of Akayev family is considered to be Kemin (Chui oblast). Among the ancestors of Akayev is Shabdan-warrior, who was one of the guides of the Russian politics in Central Asia in the XIX century. Top

Ala-Archa. gorge, Kyrgyz range. Offering dozens of walking and trekking possibilities, including hikes to glaciers and, for the serious mountaineer, treks to the region's highest peak.
The region of Ak-Sai glacier, located in Ala-Archa gorge, is the most popular and most frequently visited area. Around 150 routes have taken place through this area from the most simplest routes to the complex ones with walls of up to 1100 m high.
There are four mountain huts, three of them are small (approximately 4x4 m), one made of stone and is more comfortable, it holds up to 20 people. From the end of the road in Al-Archa gorge to the large hut in the parking lot of Ak-Sai, is a 3hrs walk on foot. Other gorges of Ala-Archa include Adygene, Top-Karagai, Tuyuk and Golubina, and are visited less frequently than Ak-Sai itself, they do not hold such unique opportunities for climbing.
An excess height there is up to 600 meters and the tours are generally of easy and moderate difficulty, but there are far more opportunities for discovering and enjoying new routes.
Ala-Archa river originates from the big glacier. There is a number of major tributaries that flow into the river, from the top to the mouth, and they include Tuyuk-Suu, Top-Karagai, Teke-Top, Ak-Sai, Adygene, Karagai-Bulak, Kadyr-Berdy, Beru-Sai, Kashka-Suu and Oruu-Sai. Unique landscapes of Ala-Archa gorge characterize the nature of both the arid western and the eastern, more damp and woodland-like, parts of the Northern Tien-Shan.
The hills are lined with Spruce and Juniper woods. The base camp is several kilometres from the main gate and is at 2100 m. Trekking to almost 5000 m is possible, although most people stay near the lower reaches that are often used for picnics.
Ak-Sai canyon - to the left of the gate at base camp - track leads to Karona Peak (4692 m) - the Ak-Sai Glacier - trekking is possible, but equipment is really needed.
Adygene gorge - to the right of the gate at the base camp - walk leads past cemetery for "fallen" mountaineers, including one who is buried outside the boundaries because he committed suicide, cutting himself free to save his comrades rather than pull them down with him. The path continues for 7 m under the Adygene glacier.
Main Canyon - straight up from the gate at the base camp - following a jeep track for 18 km to a ski base with 2 drag lifts. It is possible to visit and simply relax, or to organize light walking, 1 or 2 day's trekking - or horse-riding. Top

Ala-Bash, valley - (southern shore of the Issyk-Kul). Ala-Bash is a small mountain, dotted with sharp black and red cliffs, which proudly stands in the center of the valley. By the south - eastern foot of the Ala-Bash was once a medieval village, the ruins of which are clearly visible from the slopes. Many Petroglyphs with hunting scenes and images of wild goats remained on the mountain. At the foot of the mountain is a rock with carved Buddhist mantra "Om Mani Padme Hum" on it. Top

Ala-Bel, Pass. At 3184 m one of the major passes on the Bishkek Osh road at the top of the Chichkan gorge. Top

Ala-Kul (also known as Ala-Kol, Alakul, Alakel), Lake (3532m). In Kyrgyz it is "Colourful Lake", Issyk-Kul. The lake is located in the upper reaches of Kurgaktor, the right tributary of Karakol. It is a moraine-glacial lake. The color of the water varies depending on the weather. The lake is located between the gorges of the Arashan and Karakol, beneath the Ala-Kul pass. The lake is located 12 km from Karakol. It is possible to ascend to it via the valley of the Karakol river. Top

Ala-Kul (Ala-Kel), pass. Issyk-Kul. It is 3850 m high. It comes from Keldyk valley (river valley of Arashan) to Ala-Kul lake. Top

Ala-Myshyk, mountain. Ala-Myshyk is translated as a "Colourful Cat". This mountain is located 6 km west of Naryn town, and 250 m from the Naryn transponder installed on the northern slope. Mount Ala-Myshyk considered sacred and revered by Kyrgyz people. It has a sanctuary - Mazar, named after the legendary women - Myuyyuzdyuyu baybiche, progenitor of bugintsev. There is also an object of worship as a lone juniper. There is Ala-Myshyk cave within the mountain, which is a State Geological Preserve. At the entrance, round hallway is covered with bones of animals, mostly with bones of horses. The cavity of the cave goes several steps back of the mountain. The length of the cave is 162 m and the depth of it is 65 m. The cave has a rather complicated configuration - a relatively large cavities connected by narrow corridors. There are piles of small rock debris. The floor cavity consists of several small rooms cut into the thick limestone. Halls and passages of the cave are decorated with stalactites and stalagmites of unusual bright red hues. The entrance, which is facing south-west, offers a beautiful panorama of the Naryn valley. Top

Alai, valley. Alai Valley is an intermontane depression within the Pamir-Alai mountain range in Kyrgyzstan. The Pamir (in the south) is separated from the Gissar-Alai ( in the north), they extend from the west to the east between the Alai and the Zaalai range of 150 km. The Alai Valley ranges from 8 to 25 km and is an area of about 1,700 square km. It is as of 2240 m high in the west to 3536 m high in the east (Taunmuruk pass).
The Alai Valley is very picturesque. It has many alpine pastures. The grass is particularly dense and high on the pastures of the eastern part of the valley. The grand wall of the Zaalai range portrays an incredible view; the wall which towers over the valley 3,000 - 3,500 meters. In the foothills of the Zaalai range, on the overgrown grass of ancient moraines, countless blue lakes are visible.
There is an easy access to the Alai Valley from the city of Osh. The roads of the Alai Valley are commonly used by climbers and tourists in order to get to the mountains of Kichik-Alai, West Zaalai, Central Zaalai (including Lenin Peak District), and East Zaalai (including Kurumdy area). It is possible to get to Pamir from Osh through the Alai Valley. Finally, it is possible to drive into Kashgar mountains (Chinese Pamir) to the Kongur and Muztag-Ata region through Irkeshtam pass.
The main population of the Alai Valley are Kyrgyz nationals. However, the village of Sary-Mogol is inhabited by Pamirs, which is under the administrative authority of the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region, and is actually supplied with food and consumer goods from Horog.
As a rule, there is an active regime of the border zone. Therefore, tourists and mountaineers must obtain a pass before visiting the valley. Top

Alamedin, gorge. The Alamedin valley is one of the most striking features of the Kyrgyz Krebet, just South of Bishkek. The village of Koi-Tash, 30 km from Bishkek, is the confluence of four roads : one from the capital; another which climbs to the West over the ridge, past Golubinyi Waterfall (Pigeon'sor Dove Waterfall) to Kashka-Suu in the Ala-Archa valley; a third to the East towards Issyk-Ata, and the fourth leading upto the main Alamedin valley. The canyon narrows and the stream, one of the main rivers flowing through Bishkek, cascades down to the Chui plain.
Ten kilometers further on is the Teplye Klyuchi Sanatorium. On a territory of the camp there are a swimming pool and several mineral springs. At a height of 1800 meters asl there is a bathouse with naturally, radon, heated water - (Take the advice of the doctors and restrict swimming in the pool to no more than about 10 minutes.) - and a complex of cottages further up the road, which was opened in 1984 by the then Ministry of Power. The water in the swimming pool is 30C hot.
Beyond the complex the vista opens out into a beautiful alpine valley - ideal for a day trip out from the city - and there is a trekking route over the mountains. There are waterfalls, glades with berries, mushrooms, juniper and birch forests and views of glaciers and the Usechenko peak (4650 m), as well as a number of other canyons to the East.
There is a Community Based project in the Alamedin valley which can offer accommodation and other services. Top

Alexandrovka. To the West of Bishkek, are a number of burial mounds scattered about the farmland. These are the last resting places for a some of the nobility of the ancient Sak and Usun tribes that settled in the Chui valley between the 7th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Top

Alley Rapoport, Issyk-Kul. Rapoport alley starts from Cholpon-Ata town to Baktuu-Dolonotu. The length of the alley is more than 4,5 km. Trees, such as silver poplar (which dominate this area) and elm, were planted in 1934, by the workers of a horse farm on the initiative of their first director Leonid Rapoport (1899-1952).
The trees are firmly planted in 2 rows on either side of the road. The trees of the outside row lean away, whereas the inner row of trees is growing high above the highway forming a tunnel. Top

Almaluu. In this village at the foot of the mountains, South West of Kemin, are some ancient burial mounds. Top

Ananyevo. Some 52 kilometers east of Cholpon-Ata, lies the village of Ananyevo, which is named after one of the Heroes of the Soviet Union, who as one of the 28 Panfilov Heroes died defending a small village outside Moscow against invading German tanks in 1941. He was born in the village and there is a memorial to him with a small park just off the main street.
To the North of the village, at the foot of an 18 kilometer canyon, lies the hamlet of Chet Baisoorun. There area couple of other small canyons nearby, (Tegirmenty - at 13 kilometers long, and Orto Baisoorun - at 17 kilometers long). The area is forested and the glades and rivers make attractive countryside.
A little to the East, archaeologists have discovered the remains of an ancient settlement.
There are legends about incalculable wealth concealed in caves near the Burgan Suu waterfall. Top

Arabel syrty. Plateau space is situated at altitudes ranging from 3,500 to 4,000 meters. Permafrost fills all the space within Arabel valley. There are many stunningly beautiful lakes at syrty. Most of them are located at the foot of Terskey Ala-Too, on the left bank of the Arabel-Suu river. Here there are 50 lakes. Spatially, the lakes are combined into three groups: Arabel - by the same-named pass in the upstream of the source of Arabel-Suu; Jashi-Kel - 2 km to the south of the pass Barskoon and Juuku - in the watershed of the same-named river, flowing into Issyk-Kul lake, and the sources of the left tributary, Chontor, which flows in a deep narrow canyon. The lake basins of a glacial origin and are located on the smoothed, denudation surface of syrt uplands. The lakes are shallow and of the most diverse shapes. The largest lake south of the pass Arabel. The water surface is 0.45 sq. km. The maximum level is observed in the summer, thus water levels fall in the winter season. All the lakes are frozen from October to May. Top

Arashan, gorge. A dene of Arashan river is located at 10 km distant to the east from Karakol town. There is Ak-Suu village (in former time called as Teplokluchenka) in the early flow of the Arashan river. It got name according to a lot of springs around, located next to the village. The water contains some radon and used for a treatment of some ailments of nerve system. The gorge gets wider after the village and its left slope is covered by fir trees forest. Arashan gorge is very pictorial. There is a resort “Altyn-Arashan” (“Gold well”) on the right side of river at an altitude 2600 m, in the wide valley with fir forest, green meadows, fragrant flowers. The resort was organized in 1963 on the base of hot springs with an elevated content of minerals and radioactivity.
There is a tributary of Arashan - Anyr-Tor – with a beautiful lake (with some sea salt water) to the right side up to the river. The other sights of Arashan valley are: ice lake Kashka-Suu with some salt sea water next to the north icehouse of the top, Ak-Suu wall and water fall on Ak-Suu river - an upper tributary of Arashan. Some water falls as Sharkyratma, Tash-Tekteer, Kuldurek are very beautiful. A lake Ala-Kol is very popular and located at an altitude of 3532 m above sea level. Along a way to a nearby valley Kara-Kol. The upper part of the gorge is locked by a giant, trapeze like top Ak-Suu wall (5022 m) and to the east - an apex Soviet Russia (4900 m). There is a Teplokluchenska zoological preserve in that area with an access to the license hunting in the autumn time. Top

Aravan, petroglyphs. Osh region. Aravan petroglyphs are located on a cliff on the right bank of the same-named river, on the outskirts of the Aravan village. Large images of 2 pairs of horses seem to be mares and stallions. Next to the images of horses, on the steep rock cliff, you can see tiny figures of goats or deer with a bird's beak, as well as the figure of a hunter with a taut bow. There are abstract images, reminiscent of a horseshoe or letters of runic alphabet. These petroglyphs are typical for the ancient Saka tribes, suggesting that material culture has spread to these places, perhaps long before the emergence of the ancient state of Davan, and the Ferghana valley was one of the oldest regions of the formation of human civilization. Unique natural tract with historical artifacts, as often happens, in more recent times has become a sacred place, revered by pilgrims. It is called Duldul Ata in Aravan, and appears to be associated with the cult of Hazrat Ali, places of worship, which are distributed throughout the outskirts of the Fergana Valley. Top

Archaluu (A Place with Many Junipers). Madaniyat village, Karakoyon gorge, Talas region.
No guardian. Type of mazar – juniper. The height of the mazar is 28 meters. It is located on a peak. There, there is a 7-8 meter long single juniper. It is not a regular juniper, but juniper that grows in a trailing fashion, so it is called creeping juniper (japalak archa). It has been there since long ago. Below, at the foot of the peak, there are 15 small junipers that grow out from the underground root of the big juniper. The roots of the juniper at the base have come out on the surface – they are very thick and prominent. Top

Arkyt. The village is well laid out, relatively well maintained and looks picturesque and is located within the boundaries of the Sary-Chelek reserve (Bio-diversity reserve) and, as such, offers a good base for visitors to the region with wide views on the surrounding mountains; an attractive river running through it; animals grazing freely; almost no cars and traffic; friendly people; fresh local produced food available and is relatively cool in summer and protected in winter.
There is a museum is situated in a building next to the reserve administration office which contains a topographical model of the reserve, stuffed animals, insects and birds, and examples of different kind of trees and their timber. Labelling and descriptions are in Russian. Top

Arslanbob. Arslanbob Valley is located at the south of the Kyrgyz Republic and contains one of the most beautiful health resorts. Arslanbob is a unique creation of nature and is situated at 1600 meters above sea level. The main treasure of these southern forests is the walnut tree. The tree lives up to 1000 years, reaches enormous size and fructifies abundantly. Its leaves and fruits have curative qualities and are full of vitamins, microelements, and other nutrients. Valuable furniture and various hand-made items come from the walnut wood. Muslims consider the picturesque fruit forests sacred. According to legend, in the ancient times there lived an extremely hardworking man called Arslanbob who served the prophet Muhammad. And those who visit the forest take away with them a bit of paradise.
Attractions include horseback or trekking trips to the Big or Small Waterfall, agriculture tours with participatory herb-collecting, and hikes to Sacred Mirror Lake and Sacred Stone, important pilgrimage sites for Central Asian Muslims. Is there anyone, who has not heard about the famous walnut forests of Arslanbob? Long ago Alexander the Great's fighters passed through here and some of them took the fruits they liked back to their distant motherland, which was the beginning of nut forests in Greece. Top

Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, mausoleum. It is located near the south-eastern base of Suleyman Mountain, in Osh. This is a XVIII century monument. According to Muslim legend, it was built over the tomb of the vizier - the Suleyman king. It is interesting that a building on a Suleyman Mountain is connected with Jewish sites. One of the musicians-priests at St. David's harp and altar in the Temple of King Solomon called Azef Ben Berkia. Consonant with the name is a monument of medieval architecture - the mausoleum in Osh, the hallowed name of Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, which mistakenly believed to be associated with this city "activities, the life and work". This fact, according to the legend, is recorded back in the thirteenth century by Jamal al-Karshi, stating that the vizier of Solomon, Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, was to bury himself at the foot of a mountain. Apparently, his will was carried out and a small construction was built over his grave. It was found that the foundation of this mausoleum, existing to date, served as the construction of pre-Islamic times, but its modern form, the building acquired only in the eighteenth century. All this time, Asaf-Ibn-Burhiya, like other "Jewish" sites of a Suleyman Mountain, is a place of worship for Muslims. Top

Ashar (means a 'tenth' in Arabic). This is a natural (and sometimes financial) tax in Muslim countries. It used to be charged annually on products of agriculture, livestock, fishing and crafts. In Kyrgyzstan, ashar serves as a way of uniting people for the joint execution of specific types of farm work and the fair distribution of the crop or income between them. Central to these is the solidarity of the relatives, members of the clan or tribe. Currently, ashar is a universal way to mobilise people for the grant implementation of socially important work in which the state lacks funds. Free of charge, that is, by ashar, bridges, roads, schools, irrigation and many other similar constructions are built. Top

Ashpara, hillfort. Ashpara is located on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan to the north-west of the village Chaldybar, Panfilov area, Chui region. It refers to the VI-XII centuries. Ashpara is also mentioned under this name in written sources in IX- XIV centuries. Numerous objects are found in Ashpara, they are made of clay, iron, bronze, bone and stone. Objects of interest are those, which confirm that there were works carried out on strengthening Ashpara, orders which came from Timur (Tamerlan). Top

At-Bashi valley. It is bounded by At-Bashi mountain range in the south, by the ridges of Naryn-Too and Baibiche-Too in the north and Jaman-Too in the west. The valley is being closed by Ak-Beit pass (3282 m) in the south-west,and in the north-east there are narrow gates of the gorge near the village of Bosogo. Here, in the northern, more humid part of the valley, is At-Bashi river and there are scenic pine forests.
In the valley, there are several villages, among which the largest district centre has the same name as At-Bashi valley. At-Bashi village stands on the settlement of VIII-XIV centuries. Within 12 km from the village, on the left bank of the river Kara-Koyun, flowing into the river At-Bashi, is a Koshoi-Korgon settlement. It represents the remains existed in the VII-X centuries on the caravan trade route of the fortress city, which had a rate of Turkic khans.
A republican road goes through the valley from Naryn to Torugart (3752 m), through Ak-Beyit pass, skirting the mountain Kara-Suu, past Chatyr-Kul lake to the border post. Top

At-Bashi, river. Is the first major left-bank tributary of Naryn river. The river is 178 km and its catchment area is 5540 km². The sources of the river At-Bashi lie at an altitude of 4542 meters above sea level, at the junction of the mountains, Naryn-Too and the mountain range of Borkoldoi, where the river is called Zhanyzher. The sources of that river are the streams that feed from glaciers. Top

At-Bashi, a mountain range in the southern part of Inner Tien-Shan. At-Bashi stretches from the west - from the north-west to the east - north-east, separating the Bashi basin in the north from the Chatyrkel basin and Aksay syrty in the south. The length of it is 135 km and it is 4786 m high. It is made of Paleozoic metamorphic schists, limestone, sandstone and partly igneous rocks (granite, syenite). There are ice formations on top of the crest, and modern glaciers the area of which is around 150 square km. Mountain-meadows and subnival landscapes dominate the area. Top

At-Bashi Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS). The installed capacity of this station is 40 MW. It was commissioned in December 1970. At-Bashi HPS is located in a high-mountainous Naryn district in Naryn region on the river At-Bashi. The Hydroelectric Power Station has a reservoir with a daily regulation, with useful volume of 7 million cubic meters. Estimated water consumption of the HPS is 70.4 cubic meters / sec. At-Bashi station is located at an altitude of 1900 meters above sea level. The hydro-unit is mixed in the narrow canyon at the exit of the river At-Bashi in the Naryn valley. In the alignment of the dam, the width of the canyon is only between 5-8 m. The sides of the gorge are 30 m high, almost vertical, with a slope of 80-85 degrees.The site of hydroelectric facilities falls into an earthquake zone, magnitude of 8.0. The HPS dam is 79 m high, covered with local gravel-pebble soil and stone. There is a diaphragm placed at the top part made of a polyethylene film-0.6mm that acts as a unique impervious device. There are 4 hydro-units at 10000 kW each. Average annual output is 130-160 mln. kW/h. electricity. Top

Atake-biy (born in 1738, with a full name of Atake Batyr Tynai Biy Uulu) - he was biy, who was in charge of sarybagysh tribe in the Chu Valley in the second half of XVIII century. In the years of 1718-1722, the land of Kyrgyz people in pre-Issyk-Kul, on the rivers of Chu and Talas were captured by Dzhungar khanate. The Kyrgyz fled south, leaving their property. The Kyrgyz tribes, led by Atake's father, Tynai-biy, stopped in the region of Syrdarya river near the current city of Andijan and began farming. After the death of Dzhungar Golden Tseren, civil war broke out between different clans, which weakened their military and economic power. The Kyrgyz began to return to their lands, pushing Dzhungars out. Talas, Chu and Issyk-Kul valleys were freed. By that time, Atake acquired a well recognized title of Batyr. To ensure the security and peace, he was looking for a strong defense. In 1785, he sent his ambassadors to Russia. The empress has kindly received the representatives of the sarybagysh tribe and was sympathetic to their pleas. But this association, between the sarybagysh tribe and the Government of the Russian Empire, as a result of a complex internal and international situation, has remained inconclusive. In 1825, Atake-biy was unable to withstand the onslaught of the Kokand khanate, thus with part of the sarybagysh tribe, he moved to Issyk-Kul changing his place of residence. Top

Kyrgyzstan travel