The encyclopedia of the tourist
| Jalalabat, resort
Jaltyrak-Tash (Ur-Maral), tract
Jarkynbaevo (Kamenka), village
| Jassyk-Kel, lake
Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz), gorge
Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz), cemetery
Summer pastures in the mountains. They are normally located in high
mountains, where it is not too hot in the summer, and where the grass
is not burned by the sun, which has a positive effect on food for
the livestock. The pastures are usually located at an altitude of 2500-3200
m above sea level. Before 1920, the Kyrgyz were nomads, they only settled
in the Soviet era. But even now in the summer time, shepherds go to
the summer pastures with their herds of sheep, cows, horses, where they
live in yurts and tents. In May, they move to the spring pastures, which
are not so high, and in July-August - on alpine pastures. The most popular
of the pastures are the shores of Son-Kul lake, Suusamyr valley and Alai
Jaiyl Konurbai uluu (1703-1775) - a representative
of the tribal group Solto. He was a Kyrgyz Baatyr, who participated in the
liberation campaign against Kalmaks, because of which he had to spend a
lot of time in a foreign land. In the Ferghana Valley, Zhayyl Baatyr got
to know the life of the sedentary population and methods of farming. Upon
returning to his home places, he passed this knowledge to his brethren,
urging not to limit themselves to livestock, and to join farming, trade and
settled life. He made sure that talented young people were sent to study
in large madrasah in Bukhara and Tashkent. He organised a school, where teachers
were mullahs from Andijan, Namangan and Kokand. Top
Jalalabat is the
administrative, economic and cultural centre of Jalalabad province.
It lies in the south of the Kugart valley, in the foothills of
the Babash-Ata mountains to the North.
The climate is noted for dry, hot summers,
warm and sunny autumns with rare rainbursts and winters are
warm with high humidity. The region is a centre for fruit and
One of Kyrgyzstan's main branches of the
Silk Road passed through Jalalabad and the region has played host
to travelers for thousands of years, although little archaeological
remains are visible today — except in some of the more remote parts
of the oblast — such as Saimaluu-Tash and the Chaktal valley. These
have included travellers, traders, tourists and pilgrims (to the
various holy sights) and sick people visiting the curative spas such
as in the Ayub Tau mountain, at the altitude of 700 m above sea level
some three kilometers out of town.
Jalalabad is famous for its spas. There is
a legend that the water from the Hozret-Ayub-Paigambar spa
cured lepers. According to the legend there was a grave, a mosque
and the khan’s palace near the spa.
Abad is often used in Asian place names to
refer to the person who founded the community. It is said
that Jalal Abad was named after Jalal ad din, who was renowned
for setting up caravanserais to serve travelers — and especially
the many pilgrims who came to the holy mountain.
In early 19th century a small Kokand fortress
was built, and a small village (kishlak) grew up around this.
The local people were engaged in agriculture, trade and provided
services to the pilgrims visiting the spas. Then, in the 1870"s,
Russian migrants came to the region. They set up a garrison town and
Jalalabad developed as a market town. Where
cattle were bought and sold, and so became known as a place
of interaction between agricultural and nomadic peoples.
The town had medieval narrow curved streets
and the houses were surrounded with high clay walls. Only mosques
were decorated with colourful ornaments.
In 1916 a railway was built from Andijan
When the Soviets established their power
in the region, great importance was attached to the Jalalabad
spas. Health resorts were built and both agriculture and the food
industry developed rapidly.
The city underwent a major period of reconstruction
in the 1950's.
Nowadays Jalalabad is home to enterprises
in the oil, construction, wood processing, electro technical,
light and food industries. As in all former Soviet towns the
main street was called Lenin Street — and in Jalalabad it has retained
it’s name, fountains and statue of Vladimir Illych.
There is a Historical and cultural museum.
There is a Community Based Tourism Project
which can arrange accommodation and services in Jalalabad
and throughout the oblast. Top
Jalal-Abat, Jalal-Abad), city. Jalalabat is located in the spurs of
the Fergana range, 54 km north-east of Osh city, in the southern Kugartsk
valley at the foot hills of Ayub Tai, at an altitude of 764 m and it
is one of the industrial and cultural centers of southern Kyrgyzstan.
The area, in which lies the town of Jalalabat, was widely known in the
ancient time for its mineral springs. People began to settle near the
mineral sources. It is believed that Jalalabat city was named in the honor
of Jalal ad Din (in the beginning of the 12th century.) He was known for
building caravanserai and welcoming travelers and pilgrims who came to
the holy sources of Jalalabat, as well as the passing merchants of the
Silk Road. According to the legend, there was a source of Chashma Ayub ("
The Job Source"), who was visited by the Prophet Ayub (biblical Job). Many
of the sources are known from II century BC and are considered sacred. At
the beginning of XIX century there appeared a small Kokand fortress near
the village which has arisen, and further expanded the city. In the 1870s,
Russian immigrants arrived to the city; a garrison and a military hospital
have appeared in the village. Since 1876, Jalalabat was within the Russian
Empire, the status of the city has arisen since 1877. By this time, there
was a first mention of a settlement with the name of Jalalabat in the official
historical records. Within 5 km from the city, there is a "Jalalabat" resort,
which is located at an altitude of 971 m above sea level. Tourists are
attracted to a variety of mineral springs and curative mud. On the outskirts
of the resort, a small panoramic platform is built, from which the city
can be viewed from the top of the mountain. The average annual temperature
is +10˚ C. Summer is hot, the temperature sometimes rises to 43˚ C. Winter
is relatively warm, with average temperatures around 0˚ C. Relative humidity,
from June to October, is around 30% and in the hot summer months is even
lower. Annual precipitation falls around 460 mm. . Top
Jaltyrak-Tash (Ur-Maral), tract.
Bakai-Atinsky district, Talas region. On the left bank of the river
Kaman-Su, near the pass, behind which begins the descent into the valley
of Chatkal, there is a rock with petroglyphs. The rock represents a bedrock-type
way out in the form of a huge stair, stretching 60 m from east to west
and is 8-10 m high, and is located across the Kaman-Su gorge.
The drawings are very compact and are drawn on the two surface
planes of the rock exit - the slanted one and the upper horizontal
one. The horizontal surface plane is strongly tainted with lichens,
cracks, wind erosion and modern graffiti. The petroglyphs on sloping
sides are covered with thick dense crust of the desert varnish blue-black
in color, although they are better preserved, they are still flawed by
numerous contemporary inscriptions. Most of the pictures are made using
precise deep chiseling technique, many other images are carved and some
figures are created using art polishing technique. The main images include
deer, wild boar, camels, goats, mouflon, archers, as well as numerous images
of "Scythian Panther." There are also carts and chariots, and erotic scenes.
The Middle Ages are reflected by the horse riders with Bunchuks
(long sticks with bells suspended from them) and banners, shooting
archers, heavily armed warriors and fictional creatures. There are
tamgas (property marks), signs, pictures of national clothing, modern
images of the Kremlin, and Olympic symbols.
Timeline: there are drawings of the Bronze Age, a large
group of images of the early Saks time around VI-V centuries BC, also
a large series of early medieval paintings, including ethnographic
and contemporary. Top
Jantai Karabekov (1794-1868) - a prominent
manap of sarybagysh tribe, a descendant of Atake batyr, a councilor of Ormon-Khan.
One of the most influential leaders of Kyrgyz tribes in Ala-Too. The death
of Ormon-Khan in 1854 has sparked conflicts between tribes in the Chui
valley. Under these conditions, Jantai acquired an even greater influence.
Kokand was trying to pull Jantai in the campaign against Russia, promising
all kinds of good deeds. To exert pressure on Jantai in 1860, Kokand governor
in Bishkek, Atabek-datka took his son hostage - twenty-year-old Shabdan,
who was famous at the time for his courage and daring deeds. Kokand khans
were worried about the prospect of transition of sarybagysh under Russian
The defeat in the 1860 of well-armed Russian army troops put an end
to Kokand domination in northern Kyrgyzstan. This determined the choice
of Jantai Karabekov and his son Shabdan in favor of Russia. Top
Jarkynbaevo, village (formerly known
as Kamenka). Issyk-Kul, Tyup region. To the north of the Jarkynbaevo
village, at an entrance to the gorge,a hill-fort is located there (Kamensky).
The shafts are clearly visible up to 4 m. The hill-fort has a square
design and the citadel is located in the south-west corner. The hill-fort
is a fortified point on the caravan route, which is on the northern shore
of the Issyk-Kul lake. Unfortunately, it is getting destroyed by the current
cemetery. To the south of the Jarkynbaevo village, many bronze objects such
as house utensils were found under the lake waters. One of the boilers
with a bronze sink, dated V-IV centuries BC is currently kept in the Archaeological
Museum KRSU. Top
Jassyk-Kel, lake. Jassyk-Kel lake is located
in the upper valley of the Chon-Kemin. The lake is the 'business card'
for Kungei Ala-Too. It is a small but a very beautiful lake. The water
in the lake has an unusually blue color, which changes it's shades depending
on lighting. It lures you in with its blue color and a flexible outline
of the coast. Jassyk-Kel's lakesides are a favorite tourist destinations
in the summer, traveling on the Northern Tien Shan. Top
Jele-Dobo), a cemetery. It is located on the south side of the same named
village along the right bank of Jeti-Oguz river. Within 1 km, there are
12 large burial mounds preserved, which are stretched in a chain-like manner
on the north-south line. Previously, there were more mounds in the chain,
but many were destroyed by plowing. The embankments are earthen. They are
40-60 m in diameter and 3-6 m high. On top of the mounds of vast dimensions
are the funnels - these are the traces of the ancient robbery of the burial
mounds. This is a familial cemetery of a tribal nobility of nomadic-Saks
in VI-III centuries BC. Top
“Seven Bulls”, gorge. About 25 km South West of Karakol is
one of the most picturesque gorges. The narrow entrance into
the Gorge is formed by high red rock formations of the most
It is famous for the thundering water
falls, fancy rocks, coniferous woods and sub-alpine and
alpine meadows; it is a nature reserve.
On the bank of a turbulent river, the
resort zone of Jeti-Oguz is situated, with its hot, highly
mineralized healing springs, surrounded by emerald meadows,
forests of slender Tian-Shan spruces and wild rocks polished
by winds. Beautiful fir tree forests stretch out up the gorge for
About 5 km south of the resort, is "Valley
of the flowers" opens out which is ablaze with colour from
May - when there are multitudes of poppies - throughout early
summer. In the village there is an ancient cemetery and some barrows
Not far up the valley is the Jeti-Oguz
sanatoria (at a height of 2,100 metres above sea level),
built in 1932. Apparently there are repted to be petroglyphs
here — but no-one seems to know exactly where. There are often
yurts here which can offer accommodation.
In the valley there is the Jety-Oguz
State Zoological reserve. Nearby is the village of Jele-Debe -
where Eagle hunting demonstrations can be organized. Top
cemetery. Jeti-Oguz cemetery is located in the center of Jeti-Oguz village.
There are 3 mounds that survived within a 2 km distance of the north-south
line. There used to significantly more of other mounds but they have been
destroyed by re-development of the village. The are earthen embankments.
They are 50-60 m in diameter and 4-5 m high, and are dated VI - III centuries
BC. In medieval times, homes of the settled population, who lived in Jeti-Oguz
area, were built on top of mounds. Evidence of this are the findings of
pottery of X-XII centuries. Top
Juuku, gorge. Is situated
to the south of the village of Saruu, the southern shore of lake Issyk-Kul.
It occupies more than 50 km of the northern slopes of Terskey Ala-Too
range. There are red rocks at the beginning of the gorge. This is an original
gateway to Zhuuku. The rocks form a fanciful turrets and sculptures. In
one of the walls, there is a black gaping entrance to a large grotto-cave.
Once upon a time there was a fortified post of Kyrgyz tribal leader bugu
manap Borombai. There was a road leading to the Chinese Kashgar within the
gorge. Borombai used to control it.
Tien-Shan spruce grow for nearly 30 km along the slopes of the Tien-Shan.
Lugo-forest belt starts from a height of 2000 m after the confluence
of the river Juuku the largest right tributary - Juukuchak (22 km). From
the middle of the gorge you can see the beautiful view of the powerful
glaciers, and the main top It-Tash (4808 m). There are many waterfalls
and alpine lakes in the Alpine zone.
One of the interesting objects of nature is a waterfall, located
in the forest in the middle of the river Juukuchak. The water from the
glacier of turquoise color falls from a height of three-storey house.
There are many lakes of different origin in this area: Juukuchak
- near the mountain pass in the upper part of the gorge. Juuku - with
the length of 450 m and a width of 250 m in the upper part of the same
river at an altitude of 3790 m; Chokolyk-Kel – with the length of 3 km
and a width of about 400 m on Chokolyk-Kel pass at an altitude of 3750
m; Per glacial - in the upper part of the left tributary of the river Juuku
at an altitude of 3300 m. The length of the lake is 600 m and the width
300 m; Average - in the valley which has the similar name with the river,
1,5 km to the north of the pass Juuku, lower of the confluence of the left
tributary at an altitude of 3300 m, it’s length is 800 m, width is 300
m. Bottom - 1 km below Average lake along the river Juuku at an altitude
of 3200 m, the length of the lake is 600 m, and the width 200 meters, Low
- at an altitude 3100 m which is 400 m below the lake Bottom along the
valley of the river Juuku.
The most amazing lake in this area is the lake in the Upper gorge
Kashka-Suu (right tributary of Juuku) with the length of 800 m and a width
of 200 m. It is located on the central line of Terskey Ala-Too at an altitude
of 3600 m. The water flows out of the lake into Issyk-Kul lake and in
the direction of the Tien-Shan syrts. Replenishment of water is due to
melting glaciers slipping directly into the lake. The Silk Road caravans
went along the river, descending from a severe pass of Bedel and moving
along the high mountain deserts, which is known as gold mine "Kumtor" nowdays.
Magnificent and varied is the color of the water in these lakes
- dark green, light green, turquoise, yellow-green and bluish-green. On
the right side of the gorge Juuku - Chuck are sources of thermal mineral
waters, where you can swim.
In the gorge Juuku you can still find more wild animals than in
the other valleys of Terskei. Ibex herds number hundreds of heads. Perhaps
it is the only northern slope of the gorge Terskei, inhabited with argali
and stone marten. In the forest zone Juuku there are many roe deer, and
there are snow cock, partridges and quail bearded in alpine meadows.
Monuments Juuku are represented by petroglyphs of the period of
VI-I centuries. BC, burial mounds Saks and Usun, graves of ancient Turks
and their stone sculptures. On the river Juuku there is a stone known as
Buddhist formula "Om mani padme hum." There are many burial mounds on
the right bank of the river, next to the stone.
In VII century there is a settlement of Nestorian Christians in
the valley of the river, who came from far away Syria.
Suffering and sick people found salvation in the healing springs
of the right tributary Juuku - Juukuchak. In the late nineteenth century
in the caves of red rock, looking like a swallow's nest, you can find Kyrgyzstan
fortress of buginsky manap (ruler) Burumbai.
In the middle reaches of rivers Juuku is gumbez of Balchak. Kashgar
masters built the gunbez. Mixing for bricks, according to the legend,
was made of clay with the addition of goat fat and wool slaughtered during
funeral feast of cattle. It is a domed structure with a high portal, flanked
on either side columns, tapering upward. In the center of the portal there
is a niche high lancet door, inside of which is a similar smaller niche,
in the lower part is a small rectangular doorway. Spherical dome is equipped
with a small window, resting on a low plinth. Building materials were
the adobe brick juniper logs and planks for floors. Gumbez was plastered
from inside and outside. Dimensions of the Gumbez are 9x8x7 m. The portal
is oriented to the south east. Top