Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

J
Jailoo
Jaiyl Konurbai
Jalalabat, province
Jalalabat, town

Jalalabat, resort
Jaltyrak-Tash (Ur-Maral), tract
Jantai Karabekov
Jarkynbaevo (Kamenka), village

Jassyk-Kel, lake
Jele-Debe (Dzhele-Debe)
Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz)
, gorge
Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz), cemetery

Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz), resort
Juuku, gorge

Jyrgalan, resort


Jailoo. Summer pastures in the mountains. They are normally located in high mountains, where it is not too hot in the summer, and where the grass is not burned by the sun, which has a positive effect on food for the livestock. The pastures are usually located at an altitude of 2500-3200 m above sea level. Before 1920, the Kyrgyz were nomads, they only settled in the Soviet era. But even now in the summer time, shepherds go to the summer pastures with their herds of sheep, cows, horses, where they live in yurts and tents. In May, they move to the spring pastures, which are not so high, and in July-August - on alpine pastures. The most popular of the pastures are the shores of Son-Kul lake, Suusamyr valley and Alai Valley. Top

Jaiyl Konurbai uluu (1703-1775) - a representative of the tribal group Solto. He was a Kyrgyz Baatyr, who participated in the liberation campaign against Kalmaks, because of which he had to spend a lot of time in a foreign land. In the Ferghana Valley, Zhayyl Baatyr got to know the life of the sedentary population and methods of farming. Upon returning to his home places, he passed this knowledge to his brethren, urging not to limit themselves to livestock, and to join farming, trade and settled life. He made sure that talented young people were sent to study in large madrasah in Bukhara and Tashkent. He organised a school, where teachers were mullahs from Andijan, Namangan and Kokand. Top

Jalalabat is the administrative, economic and cultural centre of Jalalabad province. It lies in the south of the Kugart valley, in the foothills of the Babash-Ata mountains to the North.
The climate is noted for dry, hot summers, warm and sunny autumns with rare rainbursts and winters are warm with high humidity. The region is a centre for fruit and vegetable growing.
One of Kyrgyzstan's main branches of the Silk Road passed through Jalalabad and the region has played host to travelers for thousands of years, although little archaeological remains are visible today — except in some of the more remote parts of the oblast — such as Saimaluu-Tash and the Chaktal valley. These have included travellers, traders, tourists and pilgrims (to the various holy sights) and sick people visiting the curative spas such as in the Ayub Tau mountain, at the altitude of 700 m above sea level some three kilometers out of town.
Jalalabad is famous for its spas. There is a legend that the water from the Hozret-Ayub-Paigambar spa cured lepers. According to the legend there was a grave, a mosque and the khan’s palace near the spa.
Abad is often used in Asian place names to refer to the person who founded the community. It is said that Jalal Abad was named after Jalal ad din, who was renowned for setting up caravanserais to serve travelers — and especially the many pilgrims who came to the holy mountain.
In early 19th century a small Kokand fortress was built, and a small village (kishlak) grew up around this. The local people were engaged in agriculture, trade and provided services to the pilgrims visiting the spas. Then, in the 1870"s, Russian migrants came to the region. They set up a garrison town and military hospital.
Jalalabad developed as a market town. Where cattle were bought and sold, and so became known as a place of interaction between agricultural and nomadic peoples.
The town had medieval narrow curved streets and the houses were surrounded with high clay walls. Only mosques were decorated with colourful ornaments.
In 1916 a railway was built from Andijan to Jalalabad.
When the Soviets established their power in the region, great importance was attached to the Jalalabad spas. Health resorts were built and both agriculture and the food industry developed rapidly.
The city underwent a major period of reconstruction in the 1950's.
Nowadays Jalalabad is home to enterprises in the oil, construction, wood processing, electro technical, light and food industries. As in all former Soviet towns the main street was called Lenin Street — and in Jalalabad it has retained it’s name, fountains and statue of Vladimir Illych.
There is a Historical and cultural museum.
There is a Community Based Tourism Project which can arrange accommodation and services in Jalalabad and throughout the oblast. Top

Jalalabat (Dzhalalabad. Jalal-Abat, Jalal-Abad), city. Jalalabat is located in the spurs of the Fergana range, 54 km north-east of Osh city, in the southern Kugartsk valley at the foot hills of Ayub Tai, at an altitude of 764 m and it is one of the industrial and cultural centers of southern Kyrgyzstan. The area, in which lies the town of Jalalabat, was widely known in the ancient time for its mineral springs. People began to settle near the mineral sources. It is believed that Jalalabat city was named in the honor of Jalal ad Din (in the beginning of the 12th century.) He was known for building caravanserai and welcoming travelers and pilgrims who came to the holy sources of Jalalabat, as well as the passing merchants of the Silk Road. According to the legend, there was a source of Chashma Ayub (" The Job Source"), who was visited by the Prophet Ayub (biblical Job). Many of the sources are known from II century BC and are considered sacred. At the beginning of XIX century there appeared a small Kokand fortress near the village which has arisen, and further expanded the city. In the 1870s, Russian immigrants arrived to the city; a garrison and a military hospital have appeared in the village. Since 1876, Jalalabat was within the Russian Empire, the status of the city has arisen since 1877. By this time, there was a first mention of a settlement with the name of Jalalabat in the official historical records. Within 5 km from the city, there is a "Jalalabat" resort, which is located at an altitude of 971 m above sea level. Tourists are attracted to a variety of mineral springs and curative mud. On the outskirts of the resort, a small panoramic platform is built, from which the city can be viewed from the top of the mountain. The average annual temperature is +10˚ C. Summer is hot, the temperature sometimes rises to 43˚ C. Winter is relatively warm, with average temperatures around 0˚ C. Relative humidity, from June to October, is around 30% and in the hot summer months is even lower. Annual precipitation falls around 460 mm. . Top

Jaltyrak-Tash (Ur-Maral), tract. Bakai-Atinsky district, Talas region. On the left bank of the river Kaman-Su, near the pass, behind which begins the descent into the valley of Chatkal, there is a rock with petroglyphs. The rock represents a bedrock-type way out in the form of a huge stair, stretching 60 m from east to west and is 8-10 m high, and is located across the Kaman-Su gorge.
The drawings are very compact and are drawn on the two surface planes of the rock exit - the slanted one and the upper horizontal one. The horizontal surface plane is strongly tainted with lichens, cracks, wind erosion and modern graffiti. The petroglyphs on sloping sides are covered with thick dense crust of the desert varnish blue-black in color, although they are better preserved, they are still flawed by numerous contemporary inscriptions. Most of the pictures are made using precise deep chiseling technique, many other images are carved and some figures are created using art polishing technique. The main images include deer, wild boar, camels, goats, mouflon, archers, as well as numerous images of "Scythian Panther." There are also carts and chariots, and erotic scenes.
The Middle Ages are reflected by the horse riders with Bunchuks (long sticks with bells suspended from them) and banners, shooting archers, heavily armed warriors and fictional creatures. There are tamgas (property marks), signs, pictures of national clothing, modern images of the Kremlin, and Olympic symbols.
Timeline: there are drawings of the Bronze Age, a large group of images of the early Saks time around VI-V centuries BC, also a large series of early medieval paintings, including ethnographic and contemporary. Top

Jantai Karabekov (1794-1868) - a prominent manap of sarybagysh tribe, a descendant of Atake batyr, a councilor of Ormon-Khan. One of the most influential leaders of Kyrgyz tribes in Ala-Too. The death of Ormon-Khan in 1854 has sparked conflicts between tribes in the Chui valley. Under these conditions, Jantai acquired an even greater influence.
Kokand was trying to pull Jantai in the campaign against Russia, promising all kinds of good deeds. To exert pressure on Jantai in 1860, Kokand governor in Bishkek, Atabek-datka took his son hostage - twenty-year-old Shabdan, who was famous at the time for his courage and daring deeds. Kokand khans were worried about the prospect of transition of sarybagysh under Russian protection.
The defeat in the 1860 of well-armed Russian army troops put an end to Kokand domination in northern Kyrgyzstan. This determined the choice of Jantai Karabekov and his son Shabdan in favor of Russia. Top

Jarkynbaevo, village (formerly known as Kamenka). Issyk-Kul, Tyup region. To the north of the Jarkynbaevo village, at an entrance to the gorge,a hill-fort is located there (Kamensky). The shafts are clearly visible up to 4 m. The hill-fort has a square design and the citadel is located in the south-west corner. The hill-fort is a fortified point on the caravan route, which is on the northern shore of the Issyk-Kul lake. Unfortunately, it is getting destroyed by the current cemetery. To the south of the Jarkynbaevo village, many bronze objects such as house utensils were found under the lake waters. One of the boilers with a bronze sink, dated V-IV centuries BC is currently kept in the Archaeological Museum KRSU. Top

Jassyk-Kel, lake. Jassyk-Kel lake is located in the upper valley of the Chon-Kemin. The lake is the 'business card' for Kungei Ala-Too. It is a small but a very beautiful lake. The water in the lake has an unusually blue color, which changes it's shades depending on lighting. It lures you in with its blue color and a flexible outline of the coast. Jassyk-Kel's lakesides are a favorite tourist destinations in the summer, traveling on the Northern Tien Shan. Top

Jele-Debe (Djele-Debe, Jele-Dobo), a cemetery. It is located on the south side of the same named village along the right bank of Jeti-Oguz river. Within 1 km, there are 12 large burial mounds preserved, which are stretched in a chain-like manner on the north-south line. Previously, there were more mounds in the chain, but many were destroyed by plowing. The embankments are earthen. They are 40-60 m in diameter and 3-6 m high. On top of the mounds of vast dimensions are the funnels - these are the traces of the ancient robbery of the burial mounds. This is a familial cemetery of a tribal nobility of nomadic-Saks in VI-III centuries BC. Top

Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz) “Seven Bulls”, gorge. About 25 km South West of Karakol is one of the most picturesque gorges. The narrow entrance into the Gorge is formed by high red rock formations of the most fascinating shapes.
It is famous for the thundering water falls, fancy rocks, coniferous woods and sub-alpine and alpine meadows; it is a nature reserve.
On the bank of a turbulent river, the resort zone of Jeti-Oguz is situated, with its hot, highly mineralized healing springs, surrounded by emerald meadows, forests of slender Tian-Shan spruces and wild rocks polished by winds. Beautiful fir tree forests stretch out up the gorge for several kilometers.
About 5 km south of the resort, is "Valley of the flowers" opens out which is ablaze with colour from May - when there are multitudes of poppies - throughout early summer. In the village there is an ancient cemetery and some barrows (burial mounds).
Not far up the valley is the Jeti-Oguz sanatoria (at a height of 2,100 metres above sea level), built in 1932. Apparently there are repted to be petroglyphs here — but no-one seems to know exactly where. There are often yurts here which can offer accommodation.
In the valley there is the Jety-Oguz State Zoological reserve. Nearby is the village of Jele-Debe - where Eagle hunting demonstrations can be organized. Top

Jeti-Oguz (Djety-Oguz), cemetery. Jeti-Oguz cemetery is located in the center of Jeti-Oguz village. There are 3 mounds that survived within a 2 km distance of the north-south line. There used to significantly more of other mounds but they have been destroyed by re-development of the village. The are earthen embankments. They are 50-60 m in diameter and 4-5 m high, and are dated VI - III centuries BC. In medieval times, homes of the settled population, who lived in Jeti-Oguz area, were built on top of mounds. Evidence of this are the findings of pottery of X-XII centuries. Top

Juuku, gorge. Is situated to the south of the village of Saruu, the southern shore of lake Issyk-Kul. It occupies more than 50 km of the northern slopes of Terskey Ala-Too range. There are red rocks at the beginning of the gorge. This is an original gateway to Zhuuku. The rocks form a fanciful turrets and sculptures. In one of the walls, there is a black gaping entrance to a large grotto-cave. Once upon a time there was a fortified post of Kyrgyz tribal leader bugu manap Borombai. There was a road leading to the Chinese Kashgar within the gorge. Borombai used to control it.
Tien-Shan spruce grow for nearly 30 km along the slopes of the Tien-Shan. Lugo-forest belt starts from a height of 2000 m after the confluence of the river Juuku the largest right tributary - Juukuchak (22 km). From the middle of the gorge you can see the beautiful view of the powerful glaciers, and the main top It-Tash (4808 m). There are many waterfalls and alpine lakes in the Alpine zone.
One of the interesting objects of nature is a waterfall, located in the forest in the middle of the river Juukuchak. The water from the glacier of turquoise color falls from a height of three-storey house.
There are many lakes of different origin in this area: Juukuchak - near the mountain pass in the upper part of the gorge. Juuku - with the length of 450 m and a width of 250 m in the upper part of the same river at an altitude of 3790 m; Chokolyk-Kel – with the length of 3 km and a width of about 400 m on Chokolyk-Kel pass at an altitude of 3750 m; Per glacial - in the upper part of the left tributary of the river Juuku at an altitude of 3300 m. The length of the lake is 600 m and the width 300 m; Average - in the valley which has the similar name with the river, 1,5 km to the north of the pass Juuku, lower of the confluence of the left tributary at an altitude of 3300 m, it’s length is 800 m, width is 300 m. Bottom - 1 km below Average lake along the river Juuku at an altitude of 3200 m, the length of the lake is 600 m, and the width 200 meters, Low - at an altitude 3100 m which is 400 m below the lake Bottom along the valley of the river Juuku.
The most amazing lake in this area is the lake in the Upper gorge Kashka-Suu (right tributary of Juuku) with the length of 800 m and a width of 200 m. It is located on the central line of Terskey Ala-Too at an altitude of 3600 m. The water flows out of the lake into Issyk-Kul lake and in the direction of the Tien-Shan syrts. Replenishment of water is due to melting glaciers slipping directly into the lake. The Silk Road caravans went along the river, descending from a severe pass of Bedel and moving along the high mountain deserts, which is known as gold mine "Kumtor" nowdays.
Magnificent and varied is the color of the water in these lakes - dark green, light green, turquoise, yellow-green and bluish-green. On the right side of the gorge Juuku - Chuck are sources of thermal mineral waters, where you can swim.
In the gorge Juuku you can still find more wild animals than in the other valleys of Terskei. Ibex herds number hundreds of heads. Perhaps it is the only northern slope of the gorge Terskei, inhabited with argali and stone marten. In the forest zone Juuku there are many roe deer, and there are snow cock, partridges and quail bearded in alpine meadows.
Monuments Juuku are represented by petroglyphs of the period of VI-I centuries. BC, burial mounds Saks and Usun, graves of ancient Turks and their stone sculptures. On the river Juuku there is a stone known as Buddhist formula "Om mani padme hum." There are many burial mounds on the right bank of the river, next to the stone.
In VII century there is a settlement of Nestorian Christians in the valley of the river, who came from far away Syria.
Suffering and sick people found salvation in the healing springs of the right tributary Juuku - Juukuchak. In the late nineteenth century in the caves of red rock, looking like a swallow's nest, you can find Kyrgyzstan fortress of buginsky manap (ruler) Burumbai.
In the middle reaches of rivers Juuku is gumbez of Balchak. Kashgar masters built the gunbez. Mixing for bricks, according to the legend, was made of clay with the addition of goat fat and wool slaughtered during funeral feast of cattle. It is a domed structure with a high portal, flanked on either side columns, tapering upward. In the center of the portal there is a niche high lancet door, inside of which is a similar smaller niche, in the lower part is a small rectangular doorway. Spherical dome is equipped with a small window, resting on a low plinth. Building materials were the adobe brick juniper logs and planks for floors. Gumbez was plastered from inside and outside. Dimensions of the Gumbez are 9x8x7 m. The portal is oriented to the south east. Top

Kyrgyzstan travel