Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

M
Mailuu-Suu (Maili-Sai)
Maldybaev Abdylas
Manas, epos
Manas Mausoleum (Gumbez)
Manjyly-Ata
Masaliev Absamat
Mazar Bulak (Sandyk)
Merzbakher, lake
Muhammed Kyrgyz
Mumio (mumijo)

Music Kyrgyzstan

Mailuu-Suu (Maili-Sai) town. Jalalabat region. It is located 100 kilometers from Jalalabat and 550 kilometers from Bishkek. The city is located in a mountainous area in the floodplain of the Mailuu-Suu at the height of 800-900 meters above sea level. The distance to the border of Uzbekistan is 24 kilometres. According to the census of Kyrgyzstan in 2009, the city's population is 23,000 people including Kyrgyz - 76%, Russian - 10.4%, Uzbeks - 7.4%, and Tatars - 3.8%.
Since 1901, there has been production of oil in the vicinity of Mailuu-Suu, which in turn has given the name to the river, and later the city - Mailuu-Suu (translated as "oily water", and Maili-Sai as "oil-gorge" or tract). In 1929, Academician Fersman discovered radio-barite deposits in the tract of Mailuu-Suu. The development of the Mailuu-Suu deposit began in 1946 and lasted until 1968. For 22 years (1946-1968) there has been 10 tons of uranium oxide extracted and processed on the two hydro-plants on the site of Mailuu-Suu. Prior to 1968, Mailuu-Suu had the status of the 'closed' city. In 1968, the last mine and plant were closed down.
In 1964, a construction of Maili-Sai electro-lamp factory began with a capacity of 300 million pieces of bulbs per year, including 200 million of normal lighting, and 100 million pieces of automotive lamps. In addition to the mines, there were two enrichment plants in Mailuu-Suu, processing not only their own ore but also the raw materials of nearby mines - Shekaftar, Kyzyl-Jar, etc., located in the Fergana Valley. The ore has been imported from Eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. To work in the mines and in construction of enrichment mines (as well as the city), people from Povolzhie, Tatars from Crimea, and also all the unwanted in Soviet power were brought here at the end of the war. In late 2002, the factory was sold to the B.A.B.C Trading Holding. Near the town are the world's largest repositories of radioactive waste. In 2006, the city was named as one of the 10 most polluted cities in the world. Top

Maldybaev, Abdylas Maldybaevich - composer. He was born on 7 July, 1906 in Kara-Bulak village, Chui region. In 1929, he graduated from the Kyrgyz Pedagogical College and was accepted into the troupe of the Kyrgyz studio. He then studied at the Kazakh-Kyrgyz Institute of Education in the city of Almaty. In 1929-1930, he was in charge of teaching and was a teacher at Kyrgyz music and drama studio. In 1930-1933, he was a director of the Kyrgyz Music College. In 1933-1936 - he was an artist of the Kyrgyz State Theatre, and he was a soloist of the Kyrgyz Music and Drama Theatre since 1936 (1942 onwards - Theatre of Opera and Ballet).
In 1940, he began his studies at the Moscow Conservatory. He graduated from it in 1950 in the composition class. In 1953-1954 - he was a director of Music and Choreography School in Frunze. Together with Vladimir Vlasov and V. G. Fer composers, he participated in creation of the first Kyrgyz music dramas and operas: "Adjal Orduna" ("Not death, but life", 1938), "Aichurek" ("Moonlight Beauty", 1939 ), "Patriots" (1941), "Manas" (1946), "Toktogul" (1958) and others.
He was the first performer of Lensky party on the Kyrgyz stage ("Eugene Onegin" by Tchaikovsky). He was the author of the music for the National Anthem of the Kyrgyz SSR (1946). Maldybaev was a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 1-convocation, also a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Kyrgyz SSR 2-4-th convocation. In the years of 1939-1967 - he was the chairman of the Composers' Union of Kyrgyzstan. He was elected (since 1948) as a member of the Union of Soviet Composers and the Committee on State prizes of the USSR. The Kyrgyz National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet carries the name "Maldybaev" since 1978.
Awards: An honoured artist of the Kyrgyz SSR (1937); National artist of SSSR (1939); Order of Lenin (1939); Three orders of Red Banner of Labour (1946, 1951, 1958); "Badge of Honour" order (1966); Order of the October Revolution (1976); Medal "For Valiant Labour in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945" (1945); Medal for "Excellence in work " (1964); State Prize of the Kyrgyz SSR of Toktogul (1970). The portrait of Maldybaev is depicted on the Kyrgyz 1 som banknote. Top

Manas Mausoleum (Gumbez). In the Talas valley, at the foot of the Manastyn Chokosu hill, stands the ancient mausoleum - the Manas Gumbez.
There is a popular belief that the legendary hero of the Kyrgyz epic Manas is buried here. The legend connected with his name has it that the Manas Mausoleum, an unmatched piece in beauty and grandeur, was erected by order of Manas' faithful wife, Kanykei. In order to preserve the treasure buried together with Manas, Kanykei ordered that a misleading inscription should be made to the effect that Manas’ bride had been buried on the spot. But in fact it is only a beautiful folk fiction. The scientist revealed the truth M. E. Mason; according to him the mausoleum was constructed by Emir Abuki in 1334 in honor of his deceased daughter. The Manas gumbez is a portal and dome mausoleum with a pointed interior cupola and an exterior ribbed tent placed on the seamed drum, crowing an almost cubic shaped chamber. The portal with a pointed entrance niche is decorated with the columns, adorned with diverse compositions of figured belts and faced with carved terra-cotta plates with fine ornaments and inscriptions. The design of the gumbez is a vivid sample of the interpenetration of decorative and applied arts in an architectural masterpiece.
The grand structure has been restored and now appears in its full beauty. Top

Masaliev, Absamat Masalievich (10/04/1933 - 01/08/2004). He was born in the Alysh village, Frunze district of Osh region. He graduated from the Kyzyl-Kiya Mining College (1953), the Moscow Mining Institute (1956), and Alma-Ata Higher Party School (1964). he became a mining engineer.
Between 1956-1961, Masaliev worked in the mining industry. Between 1961-1985, he worked in different party positions. From 1985 to 1991, he was the First Secretary of the Communist Kyrgyzstan. In 1990, Masaliev was a chairman of the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan. Since 1992, he was the leader of the Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan. Between 1993-2001, he worked at various public positions. He was a member of the CPSU Central Committee (1986-1991), then a member of the Polit-bureau of the CPSU Central Committee (1990-1991). He was a member of the Supreme Soviet USSR of 10-11th convocation. He was also a national people's deputy of the USSR (1989-1991). Masaliev was a deputy of Kyrgyzstan's Supreme Council of the 12th Legislature (1990-1991). He had a title of "Hero of the Kyrgyz Republic." He was awarded the Order of the October Revolution, twice with the Red Banner of Labour, and "Manas" of the III degree. He received "Commonwealth" (Order of the Inter-parliamentary Assembly of the CIS, 2003) medals.
His wife - Kozubaeva, Hayryhon Kolchakovna (1939); daughters - Aysalkyn (1958) and Aichurek (1965); sons - Is'haq (1960) and Musa (1961).
Masaliev was the author of the book "Pages of Life and poor our homeland" (1993). In 2006, a monument of Masaliev was installed in the central square of Batken city. In 2008, a stamp was launched from a series of "Hero of the Kyrgyz Republic" featuring Absamat Masalievich Masaliev. One of the main streets of Osh city was named after him. Top

Mazar Bulak (Sandyk). Taldy Bulak village, Talas region. Talas. No guardian. Type of mazar - spring. The mazar is located on the very top of the mountain. The front side of the mountain is snow white. One climbs the mountain along the stream. The stream begins in the hole in the middle of big rocks. The water in the hole does not lessen no matter how much water is taken out, nor does it overflow. Its level is the same in summer and wintertime; in the winter, it does not freeze. The water does not flow here from anywhere - it appears here on its own. At the base of the rock with the water, there is a bush of juniper full of ribbons that are tied to the branches. Sandyk is the name of the mountain, and refers to it being shaped like a box or chest. The name of the mazar is Mazar Bulak. However, the mazar is also called by the name of the mountain. The depth of the spring is close to 0.5 meters. Top

Merzbakher lake (3304 m). In the Eastern part of Kyrgyzstan, where northern and southern arcs of Tian-Shan join together, lies the kingdom of Alpine glaciers. Here, among the highest peaks reaching 6000 meters lounges the enigmatic ice lake that became famous due to one unique quality. Each year the lake completely drains and then once again fills up with water from the nearby icebergs.
The lake was discovered in 1902 by the German geographer and mountaineer, Gottfried Merzbacher. Icebergs swim in its transparent water with smooth cliffs surrounding the lake. The lake can be reached after a challenging twelve kilometer path through one of the biggest icebergs on earth, the southern Enylchek. The length of the lake reaches four kilometers, the width, one kilometer, and maximum depth of 60-70 meters. During the flooding of the lake Enylchek, the flow increases to 700 cubic meters per second with an average rate of 30 cubic meters. The water level rises to six meters. The roar of rushing stream is heard for 5-10 kilometers around. Overflowing lasts for 7-10 days.
When icebergs melt with increasing intensity, the disappearing of water may occur twice a year, at the end of summer and late autumn. Typically, the flooding occurs when the water level reaches a certain level in the lake. The lake gradually fills up with water lifting up icebergs. The ice at the base of the dam that covers the inside channels also elevates. Streams of water rushes within picking up ice after it. This continues until the lake loses its reserves of water and once again covers the channels with ice. Top

Kyrgyzstan travel