Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

O
Onion Glade
Orgochor
Ormon-khan
Ornamental applied art - handicraft kyrgyz
Ornok, petroglyphs
Orozbakov, Sagymbai
Orozbekov Abdukadyr
Orto-Tokoi
Ortok
Osh, town
Osmonov Alykul
Otunbayeva Roza


Onion Glade (Lukovaya Polyana) (3800 m). The last vegetation before the stone moraines of the mountainside of the Lenin peak. It is a green oasis, with two sides surrounded by cliffs. Once there was a powerful glacier between these cliffs, but over the years it rose much higher. The most real, wild green onions grow on the Onion Glade. In the midst of Pamir summer (2-3 weeks in July), the field surface resembles a bright and colorful floral carpet. The road lies right up to the Onion Glade, where border checks take place systematically. Previously, the base camps of climbers were located at the Onion Glade before the Lenin peak, but now, in order to keep the nature of the field, they have been moved. Hence, one can see the gorge from here - the exit onto the pass of Travellers towards Lenin glacier. From the Onion Glade to the Achik-Tash base camp is around 4-6 hours on foot. Top

Orgochor. A small village about 30 km West of Karakol. The Historical Museum of Jeti-Oguz is here, started in 1990 to record the local history from a distinctly Kyrgyz viewpoint.
It was the birthplace of Telekmat Sartikiev (1799-1863) who served as ambassador to China, Russia and the Kokand Khanate. The first Kyrgyz ambassador to Russia was dispatched to Ekaterinburg as early as 1787, and others followed in 1814/15 and 1824/25. Trade relationships with their neighbours having been a source of conflict throught the previous century. Apparently, the village housed Japanese prisoners of war in World War. Top

Ormon-Khan (1791-1854) - a manap, son of sarybagysh manap, Niyazbek uulu. Upon reaching the championship of the feudal nobility, Ormon attempted to acquire power over the northern kyrgyz tribes, calling all to unite. In 1842, he created kurultai, where representatives of the tribes of sarybagysh took part - Solto, Sayak, Kushchu, Cherik etc. At this kurultai, Ormon was proclaimed to be Khan. He has established his own symbol of authority and passed a law popularly known under the name - "Ormon okuu", ("The teachings of Ormon"), a set of legislative decrees. Khan Ormon took steps to strengthen the foundations of the government, that is, he created a military structure, and also appointed advisers for the implementation of judicial functions. Khan Ormon actually made a single state entity. "The teachings of Ormon" provided normative character to traditions and rules, which have developed over the centuries in the life of the people. The power of Khan Ormon among other tribes was based on the governors - the authoritative manaps. The situation of Boucard (citizens) in Khan Ormon power was particularly disenfranchised. Even big bais were not in control of their cattle. " "Against this background, - says academician Bernstam - it can be justified, and not to be censured of centralized tendencies of Khan Ormon, where his attempts to unite the Kyrgyz tribes, regardless of the obstacles, undeterred by the means, as it repeated in a miniature of the age of Ivan the Terrible in Russia." He proved himself as a gifted military strategist in the fight against the forces of the Kazakh leader, Kenensary Kasimov, defeating him in the Chui Valley.
Since the early 50's, the relationship between Khan Ormon and bugintsy people began to deteriorate, with the Russian troops approaching Issyk-Kul, more and more people began to disobey Khan Ormon. In the song "On Wars of sarybagysh and bugu", the main cause of war is stated to be the determination of Khan Ormon to confiscate the land from bugintsy people around the Issyk-Kul lake, if they do not recognize his authority. In the summer of 1853 Khan Ormon gathered a large force and suddenly approached bugintsy people. The fight occurred in the area of Kuturgu on the northern coast of the lake. The battle was lost, Khan Ormon was taken prisoner. After a while, with the tacit consent of Borombai, bugintsy leader, was killed by batyr Balbai. The legend relates that Khan Ormon once held Balbai prisoner in order to kill him. But he let him go due to the requests of bugintsy people and his elders. Top

Ornok, petroglyphs. It is a unique place, one of the richest places where petroglyphs are found in the Issyk-Kul region and Kyrgyzstan. In the area of 6 square kilometers there are more than 2000 stones with different images located there. There are other architectural objects found with the petroglyphs, they include mounds, fragments of buildings and fences. Petroglyphs of Ornok were composed by the tribes of the Bronze Age, Early Iron Age and early medieval period, they are unmatched in the Pre-Issyk-Kul region on their technique. They are comparable with petroglyphs of Saimaluu-Tash, but they are more available to visit and therefore are of great importance as a tourist destination. The archaeological complex "Ornok" includes a burial of Tash-Koroo Ornok. The cemetery consists of several groups of mounds. Top

Orozbakov Sagymbai (1867-1930). He was a famous narrator of the epic Manas. Since childhood, he listened to almost all manaschy of his contemporaries and learned the skill from them. He started to perform Manas at the age of 15-16. Since then, the performance of Manas has become his life's work. For nearly 40 years, Sagymbai toured villages and performed epic story, polished his skills and raised his artistic level. His popularity was due to the fact that he had a very sonorous voice. The version, performed by Sagymbai Orozbakov, had 250,000 lines and is the most comprehensive and vivid in the artistic sense. Top

Orozbekov (Urazbekov) Abdukadyr (1889-1938). Born in 1889 in the village of Ohkna in Kyzyl-Kiy district in a poor family of a farmworker ("chairiker"). He was Kyrgyz. In 1912, A. Orozbekov moved to Kokand and worked until 1915 as a baker, then in the city of Andijan, he continued to work as a foreman in the Turkish-Greek bakery. He was a member of the RCP (b) since 1918. He was a fervent member of anti Basmachis in the Fergana Valley. Since 1920 he has worked in various management positions. In 1927, in the first all-Kyrgyz Congress of Soviets, A.Orozbekov, was elected to be a chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Kyrgyz ASSR. At this high post, he worked for ten years. In 1937, Orozbekov was expelled from the Central Committee and expelled from the party on charges as a "nationalist-double-dealer." In 1938, he was convicted by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court. He died in prison in 1938. Was rehabilitated in 1956 by the Supreme Court of the USSR. Top

Orto-Tokoi, water reservoir (1700 m). It is located on the Chu River, 28 km from Balykchi, on the road to Naryn. It was built in 1958. It was designed for seasonal regulation of river Chu runoff in order to irrigate the land in Chui valley, 220 thousand hectares of Kyrgyzstan and 80 thousand hectares of Kazakhstan. The water level varies seasonally. The surface area is 24 km² and volume - 500 million m³. Top

Ortok. A village about 60 kilometers North west of Jalalabat, set in one of the densest forest regions in Kyrgyzstan - surrounded by mountains and mountain meadows. There is a wide variety of flora - trees, grasses and other plants - and fauna. About 6 kilometers outside the village is a cliff with an extensive, labyrinth, cave system. Top

Osh, is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia. The exact date of its origin is unknown. Legends connect its foundation with the name of Alexander of Macedon, and even the prophet Solomon (Suleiman). None of the legend does not explain either the fact of the city or the etymology of its name, but has his evidence of ancient agricultural activities of the inhabitants of these places.
The history of the city was written 1000 years ago, and archaeological findings lead to three thousand years ago. The appearance of the city of Osh is connected with the settlement of ancient farmers of the Bronze Age, discovered on the southern slope of Mount Suleiman. The development of the city, which is located in a fertile valley at the foot of the Pamir and Pamir-Alai, is directly connected with geographic location. Due to the favorable geographical situation Osh was the point of intersection of the trade caravan routes of the ancient and medieval India and China to Europe. It was one of the branches of the Silk Road there - the major commercial artery of antiquity, connecting the East and West.
Commercial city of Osh was known for its bazaars and caravanserais. The main Bazaar, located on the left bank of the Ak-Bura river, was a classic example of the Eastern Market Hall - Tim. More than two millennia, the main bazaar in Osh has lived their noisy and colorful life, changing their building and expanding the boundaries, but remained at the same place chosen in ancient times. Modern Osh Bazaar is the most popular tourist attraction. The most popular is Artisans street and Fruit orchards. The city of Osh was one of the Muslim religious centers of Central Asia. This is mostly due to Sulaiman-Too mountain located in the city and which is given the power to heal any illnesses of pilgrims according to the legends and folk traditions.
By the end of the XIX century there were 154 mosques and around a dozen of madrassas in Osh. A few landmarks have survived. Among them is Asaf ibn Burhiya (XVII-XVIII centuries.) Rovat mosque Abdullah-Khan (XVI-XVII centuries), the Mosque of Muhammad Yusuf, Bayhodzhi-Ogly mosque Alymbek-Datka (XIX cent.) Madrasah Muhamedboy Turk Hal Muratbaev, Hazrat Muhammad madrassas Damulla Sydyk Akhund Aglam (all XII-XVII centuries.) Orthodox Church of Archangel Michael (the beginning of the twentieth century) settlement Ak-Buura, History and local history museums, museum of local crafts, a memorial complex "Eternal Flame" (1976) with a memorial "Grieving Mother" (1990), Kyrgyz Drama Theatre, art gallery "Saltanat" monument of Orozobekova Sultan Ibraimov, Kurmanzhan-Datca, Toktogul Satylganov, Niyazaly and Moldoniyazu, and, of course, always colorful and noisy bazaar on river Ak-Buura.
The main attraction is the quadriceps mountain Sulaiman-Too (Takht-Sulaiman), rising almost in the center. On the southern slope they have found the remnants of the settlement (XII-VII centuries BC), which defined the 3000 year age of the city.
Most of the mountain is the part of the National Museum "Silk Road" and includes Asaf ibn Burhiya, the ruins of baths (XI-XII centuries). It is a museum under the open sky now, Takht Suleiman mosque and the mosque Jami Rawat Abdullahan (X-XI cc.). Top

Osmonov Alykul - poet, playwright and interpreter (1915-1950). He was born in Captal-Aryk village in Panfilov district in a family of the poor. Losing his parents early, he was raised in Pishpek and Tokmak orphanages. In 1929-1933, Osmonov studied at the Frunze Pedagogical University . In 1932-1936, he worked in the offices of the "Chabuul" magazine and "Leninchil jash" newspaper; and between 1937-1940 as a Secretary of the Union of Writers in Kyrgyzstan. In the future, he engaged in creative work. His works have been published since 1930 and therefore, he has published many books of poetry. He wrote in both Kyrgyz and Russian languages, translated a lot of stories, poems, legends and fairy tales from Kyrgyz into Russian. He was awarded the "Order of Honour". He died at the age of 35 from pneumonia. There is a monument of Osmonov at the front of the National Library in Bishkek city. In honour of the 75th anniversary of the poet, a museum was opened in the village where he was born. Osmonov is also represented on the 200 som banknote. Top

Otunbayeva, Roza Isakovna (August 23, 1950, Frunze (Bishkek) - politician and diplomat.
She was the third President of Kyrgyzstan. She graduated school in Osh with a gold medal. In 1972, she graduated from the Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University and enrolled in post graduate courses. She trained in Germany. In 1975, she became a candidate of philosophical sciences after defending her thesis on "Critique of falsification of Marxist-Lenin dialectics of the Frankfurt School philosophers" in Moscow. In 1975-1981, she worked at the Kyrgyz State University (Kyrgyz National University of Zhusup Balasagyn) as a lecturer, senior lecturer, associate professor, and a head of dialectical materialism department, in Frunze.
Since 1981, she worked at the Party work.
In 1986-1989, she was a deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, and a Minister of Foreign Affairs.
In 1989-1990, she was an executive secretary of the USSR Commission for UNESCO, and in 1990-1991, the chairman of the USSR Commission for UNESCO.
In 1991-1992, Otunbaeva operated as an ambassador for Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR in Malaysia and Brunei-Darussalam.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, she worked in high-level posts in Kyrgyzstan. In 1992, she was appointed the first Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic, and in the same year as the U.S. ambassador of Kyrgyzstan.The following year, she returned to the post of the Foreign Minister. From 1997, she was an ambassador of Kyrgyzstan in the UK and Ireland. Since 2002, she was a deputy of special representative of the General Secretary of UN in Georgia. During this period, she was a special representative of the UN General Secretary on the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict.
On 13 December, 2004, an opposition movement "Ata-Jurt" was established in Kyrgyzstan. The organizing committee was headed by the deputy of Kyrgyz parliament, film-maker, Dooronbek Sadyrbaev and Roza Otunbayeva.
Roza Otunbayeva is considered to be a moderate politician, and has become popular since the end of 1989. After the Tulip Revolution in March 2005, which led to the overthrow of the President Askar Akayev and the arrival of Kurmanbek Bakiyev to the president post, Otunbaeva was again appointed to the post of Foreign Minister.
From December 2007, she was a Member of Parliament and a member of the parliamentary faction of the opposition of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, and since October 2009 - the head of the parliamentary faction.
As a result of the 7 April 2010 events, Otunbaeva became the head of the Provisional Government of Kyrgyzstan. On 19 May, 2010 she was appointed President of Kyrgyzstan in transitional period by a special decree of temporary government. According to this decree, the term of office of the President of Kyrgyzstan in transitional period was set to 31 December, 2011. According to the results of the referendum, held on 27 June 2010, Otunbaeva was elected as the President and took an oath on 3 July, 2010.
She speaks Kyrgyz, Russian, English and, to a lesser extent German, languages. Otunbaeva's Family: she was a second of eight children in the family of Isaac Otunbayev, the father - a lawyer as well as a member of the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Saliyka Daniyarova, the mother who was a teacher. Otunbaeva is divorced and has a daughter, Karach and a son, Atay. Daughter-in-law is a TV presenter of "Relax" program by Evgeny Gubin. Otunbaeva's former husband was B. K. Sadybakasov (sources also say his surname as "Sadykbasov"). Top

Kyrgyzstan travel