Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

S
Sadykov Abdykadyr
Safed-Bulan
Sahaba-Mazar
Saimaluu-Tash
Saimaluu-Tash, natural park
Sak-Usan
Salkyn-Tor, natural park
San-Tash, pass
San-Tash, mound
San-Tash, settlement
Sanatoriums, resorts
Sarala-Saz
Sargyr
Sarkent, natural park
Sary-Bulun
Sary-Chelek, lake
Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve
Sary-Jaz
Sary-Oi (Kursk)
Sarychat-Ertash State Reserve
Semenov-Tyanshansky
Semenovka
Shaar, waterfall
Shabdan Dzhantaev
Shah Fazil, mausoleum
Shamshy
Sharkyratma
Sheker, village
Shish-Debe, hillfort
Shopokov
Shoro-Bashat
Shoro-Bashat, hillfort
Shyrdabek
Skazka
Sokuluk
Soltonoev Belek
Son-Kul
Sulaiman-Too
Suluu-Terek, dry canyons
Surmatash State Reserve
Surot-Tash
Surprise, cave
Suusamyr, valley
Suyab
Syrty


Sadykov Abdykadyr (born in 1933) - literature critic, doctor of Philology Sciences and a member of Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR. Born in Kara-Suu village, Naryn region in the family of a farmer. He graduated from high school 1946 and KSU Faculty of Philology in 1953; from 1956 to 1959, he studied at the graduate school and also worked as a teacher in KZHPU of Vladimir Mayakovsky. In 1961, he defended his thesis for the PhD degree of a candidate, and in 1972 - a doctorate of Philology. In 1979, Sadykov was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR.
He began his working career in 1953 as a teacher of the Osh Pedagogical Institute. Since 1960, Sadykov worked in the IYAL Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz SSR as a research assistant, and from 1962 as a senior researcher; from 1966, he was the head of sector; in 1974 -a deputy director, following a director's position since 1980 and then, senior researcher in 1988. Sadykov was involved in literary criticism and literary work since 1956. He was an author for a number monographs, collections of literary and critical essays, reviews, and investigations. He has translated a collection of stories and novels of N. Bogdanov - "Most interesting", stories of T. Likhotal, A. Tversky and others into Kyrgyz language.
He was a member of the CPSU since 1958 and a member of the Writers' Union since 1980. He was awarded a medal of "Veteran of Labour", and also a Diploma of the Supreme Soviet of the Kyrgyz SSR. Top

Safed-Bulan. It is a historical, archaeological and architectural complex of Kyrgyzstan. This beautiful place is located in the Jalal-Abad region, Alabuka district at the confluence of Padysha-Ata and Chanach-Sai rivers. In the Muslim cemetery on the outskirts of the village of Sahfed-Bulan, between the villages of Ala-Bukin and Kerben, is a brick mausoleum Shah-Fazil, built approximately in 1050. It is currently used as a mosque and is a place of pilgrimage. Top

Sahaba-Mazar. Sahaba-Mazar is located 51 kilometers from the city of Osh, it is an ancient sacred cemetery, which can be characterised by kairak tombstones with epitaphs, written in Arabic script. Kairak (there are over 100) belong to different epochs. The inscriptions are mostly without dates and consist of 2-7 lines. They belong to the XVII-XVIII centuries and considered to be one of the oldest places in Fergana valley. Sahaba is also a centre for folk festivals across the Fergana valley, during which the following is conducted - horse racing, Ulak, Kurosh, Uzbek and Kyrgyz national games, and the rite - "Zhalancha". Sahaba is one of the sanctuaries of the Fergana Valley. Top

Saimaluu-Tash. Tens of hectares are covered by the Stone Gallery, with tens of thousands of black-and-white rock paintings in the upper Saimaluu-Tash tract, dated to the 2nd century B.C. - 8th century A.D.
The Gallery is 30km to the south of Kazarman. The diversity of the paintings' subjects is amazing: pictures of animals and people, hunting scenes, ritual symbols, battles and work. The ruins of ancient settlements are preserved on the outskirts of Kazarman, reminding one of the city of 10-12th centuries. Memorials from the saks and usunis epochs are represented by 3-5m high barrows, scattered around, with burial chambers inside. Top

Sak-Usan, kurgans. Located in the village of Alexandrovka, West of Bishkek, there are a number of burial mounds scattered about the farmland. These are the last resting places for a some of the nobility of the ancient Sak and Usun tribes that settled in the Chui valley between the 7th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Top

San-Tash, pass (2195 m). It is a flat and subtle descent between Kungei and Terskey, where Kegen and Terskey basins are located in the east. There is an auto-road that goes through San-Tash from the Issyk-Kul basin to Almaty.
There is a strong wind that blows through the San-Tash pass directed at the basin of a lake from the east. Its name - "San-Tash" is the same as the pass itself from where it comes from. Through the Boohmsky gorge, the wind blows from the west. Both winds are caused when the cold air is accumulated together behind the mountains, which are blocking the lake's basin. They cause a storm above the Issyk-Kul lake, but their influence normally spreads only over twenty to thirty kilometers from the shore. Top

San-Tash, mound. This grand mound complex is located in the south-west of the start of the pass at the foot of Adyr. The centerpiece of the complex is a large mound with a stone embankment, known as "San-Tash", on behalf of which were named the pass and the valley. Its dimensions: 56 m in diameter and 4 m high. The summit of the mound is flattened and has a slope towards the eastern side. There is a funnel in the center - a trace of predatory manhole. At the foot of the mound is a circle of stones - 1 meter wide. It took no less than 3500 cubic meters of stone for its construction.
Originally, the mound had a different shape, but after the partial destruction of the embankment by the robbers in antiquity and the removal of stones on the economic needs of our time, its appearance changed. The mound is similar to the pazyrsky mounds of Altai.
These burials date from within the VI-III centuries BC. It was the tomb of the Saks tribal chiefs. General dating of the burial ground is VI-I centuries BC - Saks-Usun time.
There are other types of mounds grouped around the grand mound: earthy, stone and earthen, and stone mounds, outlines of the stones and laid stone of a round shape. There is no arrangement system that has been observed.
There are 257 burial mounds preserved. At first, as in other graves, there were more. But since most of them are located on the site of grassland, the mounds with stone embankments are gradually destroyed.
There is a hill called San-Tash (Turkic "The Read Stone"). The legend has it that they were composed by the army of Timur. When the commander went on his campaign, he ordered each soldier to take a stone with them, and here, at the pass, they all laid these stones into a large mound. Upon return, soldiers who survived took a stone each from the mound and placed it by their side. Therefore, there are now two mounds made of stone, one of which became a monument of the victims who died on a foreign land. Top

San-Tash, settlement. It is located on the left bank of the river Tyup, to the north-east of the Kyzyl-Kiya pass. Its design represents a square with sides of 48x48 m. Protective walls were built of stone based on alabaster solution, preserving their height from 1.8 to 2.3 m and being 2 meters wide. On the corners of walls and bays are towers. Exit to the center is marked with the pylons. Inside the settlement, are the rooms along the defensive walls, those walls are also made of stone, and in the middle part there is a yard. During the excavations there were ceramics, including glazed ones, fragments of burnt brick, and other items found. It was alleged to be a caravanserai on the caravan route through the pass of San-Tash in Eastern Turkestan, being also a fortification. Top

Sarala-Saz. A jailoo about 60 km Northwest of Kochkor. It is one of the largest high altitude meadows in the Kochkor region. On the way up to the jailoo are several large burial mounds dating from the 1st to the 5th centuries - measuring 60 meters in diameter and 13 meters high.
A nearby waterfall is known to locals by the romantic name «Look for me» because it is well hidden amongst the rocks. It is possible to stand within a few meters of it, hear the rushing water, but not be able to see it. Higher up, past patches of wild onions, is a permanent glacier.
The legendary hero Manas is supposed to have visited frequently and relaxed on the nearby Kara-Too mountain, playing the traditional game «Ordo» with his followers. According to the legend, noticing that his horses were wandering away, he threw huge stones in front of them to persuade them to return - over a distance of 10 kilometers!. The stones are still to this day as witness to his incredible strength. Top

Sargyr Pass. At 3100 m this is the highest point on the 177 km road between Kazarman and Jalalabad and clearly marks the distinction between a spectacular road clinging to the mountain side and fertile mountain valleys. The pass is closed for most of the year by snow.Top

Sary-Chelek, lake. The lake itself is situated some 1873 meters above sea level, it stretches for some 7.5 kilometers, varying in width from 350 m. to 1500 m. and it at its deepest point reaches a depth of 234 m. There is some dispute about how it was formed — some scholars think It resulted from the collapse of two ridges of mountains which blocked the river and held back the waters and others as a result of a shift along a fault line some 2000 years ago. The waters often appear a greenish shade of blue — and make attractive photographs.
There are also some other small lakes to the south-east (such as Kyla Kol, Iyri Kol, Aram Kol, Cherek Kol, and Bakaly Kol), but Sary Chelek is regarded as the «gem» — the «Jewel in the Crown».
The Lake’s picturesque shores are thought by many of the local population to be the most beautiful in Kyrgyzstan. The steep slopes, (in places sheer), are covered with pine, silver fir and archa (myrtle) trees. A dendrological park (tree garden or Arboretum) has been established in the reserve, and although this is not highlighted as a visitor attraction, offers the opportunity to encounter the trees and bushes of the region, with living examples to complement the dried specimens found in museums.
Generally the climate is damper and milder than in the rest of Kyrgyzstan. The high mountain ridges protect the reserve from the cold north winds in winter and the temperature here is much higher than elsewhere in the valleys (although it can fall to -27.) Snow cover in winter, which lasts for over 100 day each year, is fairly uneven — on the southern slopes, often there is no settled snow, but elsewhere it can be over a meter deep. In early summer (May and June) there is a combination of warmth and humidity, which gives way in late summer to warm, dry, windless days.
Some fishing is permitted in the rivers feeding the lake, but not on the lake itself. Swimming was prohibited after some fatal casualties in 1983. Hunting is absolutely prohibited within the reserve, although illegal hunting is a problem.
There is a museum is situated in a building next to the Zapovednik administration office which contains a topographical model of the Zapovednik, stuffed animals, insects and birds, and examples of different kind of trees and their timber. Top

Sary-Jaz. Sary-Jaz is located in the valley of the same-named river and its right tributary of Ak-Shiyrak. Due to the harsh climatic conditions it is recommended for the most experienced tourists. The valley extends from the north-east foot of Khan-Tengri to the west of Enilchek city at an altitude of 2700 m - 3600 m, surrounded by a 5-thousandths peaks (Semenov – 5816 m and Karakol - 5280 m). One of the largest mountain rivers of this region runs through here, fed by melt water of snow and glaciers of the highest mountain massif, Muzdug. The water has an amazing greenish-white colour. The length of the river in Kyrgyzstan is 198 km. Emerald alpine meadows, individual groves of spruce of Sherenka, juniper and birch forests, and below that, the steppe zone, are all freely spread over the slopes from a height of 3000m. For miles river Sary-Jaz flows into the canyon-like valley with steep sides. From the valley of the river Sary-Jaz, scenic views open onto the jagged ridges, sharp peaks, and the cirques surrounding the ridges. Mountains are ringed with thick snow stripe, under which glittering glacier tongues rise out through the entire horizon. Sary-Jaz river cuts through the powerful mountain ridge of Kakshaal-Too and departs to China. The vegetation of the Sary Jaz valley is well adapted to the harsh conditions. At an altitude of 3000 m, the border of the alpine steppe belt ends in the Sary-Jaz valley, where mostly fescue, sagebrush and feather grass grow. Above 3500m, grains disappear altogether in the Sary-Jaz valley. They are dislodged by the high desert plants that are presented mainly by cushion-forming suffrutescent xerophytes and wandering lichens. Even higher is the rocky tundra. This type of landscape is circulated only in small patches on the highest ridges of the Tien-Shan in elevations of 3900-4300m above sea level. Such plants, in Sary-Jaz valley, find it easier to resist adverse conditions - cold, wind, drought, and fatal ultraviolet rays. It is worth visiting an amazingly beautiful Sary-Jaz canyon, which is located near the confluence of Sary-Jaz river and its right tributary, Ak-Shiyrak. Seven kilometres to the east of Echkili-Tash village, at an altitude of 3150m, in a limestone cliff on the right bank of Sary-Jaz, is Ak-Chunkur cave ("white hole"), which is about 70m and 4m wide, and the entrance to this cave rises over the water at 130 metres. There were some traces found of a prehistoric man with early wall drawings made with ocher. Not far from the cave lies a small lake. In the upper reaches of Sary-Jaz river, around a variegated marble rock of Kara-Al-Tash, are hot springs with a temperature of about 60 degrees. Near Enilchek village some petroglyphs can be seen (I-II thousand years BC). The realm of the mountain gorges and peaks, decorated with hanging tongues of snowfields, is inhabited by ibexes, mountain sheep and argali. Sary-Jaz valley is connected to the town of Karakol and the highway of 140 km. Sary-Jaz gumbez. They are located in remote tracts of Sary-Jaz ridge. They are dated from the late XIX and the middle of XX century. Sary-Jaz is characterized by gumbez with wood and without domes, similar gumbez to Altai. It presents a small log frame on a stone foundation, corners with four pillars decorated with figural carvings. The walls made of adobe blocks, the upper edge can be decorated with figural bricks in a triangular lattice. In the centre, there is a common grave mound. To visit Sary-Jaz valley, a pass must be acquired in the border zone. Top

Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, Petr Petrovich. He was born (2) 14 January, 1827 in Urusov village, near Ryazan; the son of Captain, a retired member of the Borodino battle. Semenov was a prominent Russian geographer, botanist, entomologist, an honorary member of the Russian Geographical Society and several other scientific societies of Europe, an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He made an enormous contribution to the study of Central and Middle Asia, especially of Kyrgyzstan. In 1848, Semenov graduated University and decided to engage in science. In 1853, he began to lecture geography and geology at the University of Berlin. There, he acquired an idea to research the Tien-Shan, suggested by Alexander von Humboldt. Between 1856-1857, he travelled to the Tien-Shan, beginning his expedition research. Semenov has collected a wealth of material, including unknown, to science, species, gave the name to Zailyisky Alatau (also known as Trans-Ili Alatau). He was first to calculate the absolute benchmark of Lake Issyk-Kul; he suggested its formation and composition of coastal sediments, morphology, history and archaeological sites of Issyk-Kul. In 1906, when the scientific study of this mountain range began, "Tien-Shan" was also added to the name of Semenov. From 1873 to 1914, Semenov was the head of the Russian Geographical Society. He was involved in scientific expeditions of Prjevalski, Potanin, Kozlov, Roborovski, Valihanov, Mushketov and Obruchev. From the pen of the Semenov-Tian-Shan came out capital works on geography; he assembled a unique collection of insects (about 700 thousand examples), as well as a rich collection of paintings by Dutch artists, which was later transferred to the Hermitage (this is more than a hundred paintings and several thousand prints). This scientist died on 11 March, 1914 in St. Petersburg. A number of geographical features in the Middle East and Central Asia, the Caucasus, Alaska and Svalbard, and about 100 new forms of plants and animals have been named in his honour. A gold medal was established in the name of Semenov - Tian-Shan. In Balykchy city, a monument with the following inscription in Russian and Kyrgyz languages has been put up, - "To the great Russian traveller, P. P. Semyonov - Tian-Shan, from the Kyrgyz people, 1982". A sculptural group consists of the figure of the scientist-traveller, holding a horse on the leash under the Kyrgyz saddle. Top

Shaar, waterfall. Located in the valley of the river Bash-Kaindy (inflow of At-Bashi, Naryn region). It can be seen from far away, as far as the entrance of the valley. (There is a remarkable hill, which offers a beautiful view of the river and the ridge of At-Bashi.) The waterfall is not well known. It takes half a day walk along the trail to the waterfall. The waterfall is approximately 300-400 meters, consists of several cascades and is fully visible only from afar. Top

Shabdan Dzhantaev (1839-1912) - the largest sary-bagysh manap, one of the descendants of the famous Attacke-batyr. He was born in Tuyuk-Bulun area on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake. He was famous for a successful foray into Barymta. In his youth, he was a representative of the Kyrgyz at the reception of Mallya Khan in Kokand. He served two years in Tashkent at the Khan Kanate. Shabdan received Russian citizenship and began to truly serve the new authorities. In 1868, with 200 dzhigits he helped Bishkek district chief Zagryazhsky approve a new administration in the central Tien-Shan. Since 1876, with his party he was part of the Skobelev's troops , where he took part in the conquest of the Khanate of Kokand, in operations against insurgents of Pulat Khan, for which he was awarded the George Cross. In Alai Skobelev campaign in 1876, Shabdan with 40 dzhigits, was distinguished among a number of operations, he participated in the defeat of the last rebel units led by Jetim Khan. Shabdan faithfully served the Russian government until his death. He received a rank of an army officer, conforming a lieutenant colonel status. In 1883,he was part of the Turkestan delegation at the coronation of Alexander III. Top

Shah Fazil, mausoleum. Is one of the most significant monuments of architecture of 16-17 centuries.. The mausoleum is located in the Ala-Buka area, in the ancient village of Safed-Bulan, and this name combines two great cultures - Arab and Turk.
These locations were strategically important in terms of trips to Bukhara and Samarkand.
Later, according to legend, the terrible events took place. During the execution of the prayer innocent people were attacked and as a result 2700 Arab soldiers were beheaded. Local girl by the name Bulan, washed severed heads, to find the head of her lover among them, and buried them here. The mausoleum was built to commemorate this event. There is huge stone near the ditch, at the entrance to the mausoleum. According to legend, it was the place where Bulan washed cut off heads of soldiers. There is a place Kyrgyn-Machet where 2700 of Arabs were beheaded, and where is the low shrine of Safed-Bulan now.
Only women can enter Mazar and read Quran and ask for blessings from the saint. There is a stone of fertility, where women, can ask for the welfare of the family, and childless - the children, touching the stone by the hand.
Scientists have found that the ruler of Ferghana Mahmud ibn Nasir, known by the nickname Shah Fazil, which means a fair check, was buried in the mausoleum. This museum was built in the memory of a beloved Shah. Mausoleum of Shah Fazil is a dome-centric structure, oriented to the sides of the world by angles. The total height of the monument from the ancient floor level to the top of the dome is 15.5 m, the outer perimeter of the base is 11.7 m
Different carved stucco ganch retained traces of the once abandoned dark-blue, blue, yellow and red colors of paint.
In the late 19th - early 20th centuries as well as in the distant Middle Ages, religious festivals were held with the sacrifices of animals. The pilgrims streamed here from the entire neighborhood. Top

Shamshy, gorge. It is located 85 km from Bishkek city and south of Tokmok. It has narrow and steep slopes (35-45º). A river flows through Shamshy gorge. There are some thick trees, such as firs and other evergreen trees in this gorge. Tien-Shan fir and pine trees present a natural forest. This area is a place of residence for wild boars, deer, stoats, hares, lynxes and stone martens. Tall plants of sub-alpine meadows grow mainly in the northern and western slopes, where there is more moisture. At 12 km deep into the gorge, two rivers, Shamshy and Tuyuk, flow into. In the upper valley is Shamshy pass (3570 m), which binds Kochkor and Chui valleys. The gorge is used as a pasture. Tuyuk-Keltor lake (2725 m, 0.2 sq. km.) serves as a landmark, which is located in the upper part of the Tuyuk river, where waterfalls cascade over the river of Chon- Keltor, the right tributary of the river Shamshy. In 1958, near Shamshy gorge, two kilometres from Bishkek-Balykchy highway, there was a hoard of gold jewellery found in the field during field work. Archeologists have determined that it was a burial mound, where a woman was buried. She had a mask on her face made of pure gold. The gold face plate simulated a tattoo - tree of life. All treasures found there are currently in the Historical Museum in Bishkek. Top

Sharkyratma, a small river where the waterfalls cascade. It is located in the Ala-Archa gorge, halfway along the path leading to Ak-Sai. The cascade of small waterfalls begins at 100 meters above the crossing of the river and the path. Further, after 400 meters on the quiet side of the gorge and the confluence of two rivers forming small Sharkyratma rivers, there are also small cascades there. Top

Sheker village. Talas region near the Uzbek border. It is famous for being a place of Chinghiz Torekulovich Aitmatov's birth in 1928. He was a Kyrgyz writer, who wrote in Russian and Kyrgyz. Top

Shish-Debe, hillfort. It is located in the northern town of Kara-Balta. Its total area is about 6000 ha. It was the largest city, Nuzket, (VI-XII centuries) in the left bank of the Chu river. The city stood on the Great Silk Road and was destroyed to its foundation by the Mongol invaders in the XII century, after which the residents had left it. Only after six centuries, with the formation of the Khanate of Kokand, in Khan Madal's power, on the place of Nuzket, Shish-Debe military fortress was built to control the western part of Chui valley. The fortress was destroyed by addition of these lands to the Russian Empire in 1863. On-site of the hillfort, buildings, residential and business premises were uncovered. Some pottery, items made of glass, metal, bone and stone were found. On the territory of Shish-Debe hillfort, two major hoards of coins were revealed (about 5000 copper and silver) in XI-XII centuries. Top

Shopokov. A small town on the road between Bishkek and Tashkent - named after a hero of the Soviet Union who fell as one of the 28 Panfilov heroes, killed defending a small village outside Moscow against invading German tanks in 1941.Top

Shoro-Bashat. Just inside the border with both Uzbekistan and Jalal-Abad oblast lies the site of an ancient settlement which dates from the 4th century BC through until the 5th century AD. Top

Shyrdabek. Shyrdabek, on the Naryn - Osh road, is the site of an ancient fortress dating from the tenth century. The fortress was built at the cross-road of caravan routes and measures 120 x 117 m. The walls are 6 m high. In the corners of the fortress there are towers. The walls and the towers are made of pahsa and adobe and have loop-holes.Top

Skazka - «fairy tale», valley. Demolished sandy rocks are located near the village of Tosor. They have a form of various posts, changing their color from red to orange. Here you will find yourself in a magical city. Double fortification, stretching for several kilometers along the ridge of hills protects the peace of the sleeping castles and wonderful animals from red clay and sandstone - elephants, hippos, snakes, and some other wondrous animals. Photos. Top

Sokuluk (Belogorka). The Sokuluk gorge is located to the south-west of Bishkek (72 km). In the Sokuluk Valley to the West of Bishkek lies the village of Tash-Bulak («Stone Spring»). It sits astride the Sokoluk river which flows through alpine meadows and woodland with many varieties of wildlife. The village is still known to many locals by it's Soviet name Belogorka, and it was the site of a very successful collective farm. Nowadays the village is not as prosperous but is still quite attractive with decorated houses. It can serve as the starting point for several walks. In this wonderfully beautiful place there is one of the highest waterfalls in the whole North Kyrgyz range. The height of it is 60 meters and it produces a water cloud which hangs around it. On the way there (which is easy and takes around 1 hour) you can see bushes of wild current and bushes of other wild berries and flowers.
Nearby is the Pigeon»s waterfall - not to be confused by it's more famous namesake in the Alamedin valley - which plummets over the steep cliffs. There is a trail over the mountains to the Kochkor - Suusamyr road which used to be used to drive sheep over the mountains, but it hasn»t been used in recent years and is generally impassable now.
There is a route between the Sokuluk gorge and Ala-Archa over the Ozernyi pass (3900 m). Photos. Top

Soltonoev Belek, was born in 1878 in the village of Tegermenty in Kemin district. He is a known Kyrgyz historian, who tried to determine the origin of Manas and gave two versions of the Talas Kyrgyz people. Belek Soltonoev was executed in 1937. Top

Shoro-Bashat, hillfort. It is located 10 km from the town of Uzgen, on the river city of Yassy. Shoro-Bashat was built in 5-4 century BC. This hillfort was one of the most important centers of ancient Ferghana. This city, covering an area of 70 hectares (1400x500 m), was one of the major Pargansky cities. The system of fortification for Shoro-Bashat hillfort included other fortresses and small hillforts: North-Uzgen, Denbulak and Kyzyl-October. Remains of some housing estates, related to the end of the 2nd millennium BC were found within this territory. Shoro-Bashat is a military and religious center and consisted of four independent parts: a military camp, the religious complex, a refuge and stronghold. Top

Sulaiman-Too, Sulaiman Mountain (Throne of Solomon). It is located in the city of Osh. The height of the mountain at the highest point is 100-150 m, length is 1.5 km and the width is 120 m
According to the legends and folk legends the Suleiman mountain is considered to be sacred since time immemorial. Its slopes and foothills abound with historical monuments of the past - from the Neolithic to the Late Middle Ages.
The name Takhti Sulaiman (Throne of Solomon) was received after Muslim Prophet - Sheik Suleiman was burried at the foot of the mountain.
In the X century pilgrims from all over Asia come to the mountain, because from time immemorial, it is believed that it was here that the Prophet Sulaiman turned to God, and the prints of his forehead and knees remained on the stones. Muhammad Zakhiriddin Babur (1483-1530 years.), the grandson of Tamerlane and the founder of the Mughal dynasty, built a small hudjra (cell) with a mihrab above this sacred for every Muslim place, the site where today the white stone mosque is located as well as the " Babur's house ", recreated according to archival sources. According to the legend it was on this mountain, where a woman can ask God to bestow her child, and the top is the legendary "test track", which can’t be passed by an unfaithful wife, as the legend says.
The Suleiman Mountain keeps valuable information in their caves and grottoes, on the slopes and cliffs. Hundreds of petroglyphs carved on the rocky outcrops of the mountain, the stone tiles, on the walls of caves and grottoes. The oldest petroglyphs are made thousands years ago.
There are entire inscriptions on the rock carvings. The most famous of them is on the south side of the first peak of the Mount Suleiman. It is made with Kufic script and has the name of the Samanid Amir Nasr ibn Ahmad and dated back to 329 year of the Hijrah (940-941 years).
In 1956, excavations were carried out in a cave Rush Unkur - Cave Eagles (now one of the halls of the cave complex at Osh combined historical and cultural museum reserve). As a result of the excavations a collection of stone tools of the Late Neolithic was discovered. This collection is stored in the Osh Museum.
In 1967, the elevating pottery, identical to the painting and method of making ceramics of Chust culture, was found on the southern slope of the Suleiman mountain. It was assumed that there was the first permanent settlement there. Top

Suluu-Terek, Dry Canyons (Konorchok Canyons) - 125 km from Bishkek these canyons stretch for nearly 200 km.
After 50 minutes of slow walk the valley of red castles, columns and sculptures is opening to your gaze. These canyons are the masterpieces of nature’s architecture.
It‘s wonderful at any season, but it is the most interesting and attractive at the period from May till October, when everything is growing and blooming. It’s a valley of contrasts. It’s a temple. It’s great nature’s theatre.
To see Sulu-Terek Canyons completely would take a long time - but it is possible to spend a few days exploring the spectacular scenery. The canyons have romantic names like "Grand Canyon", "Bobsleigh" and "Skyscraper". They were formed about one and a half to two million years ago and since that time erosion by wind and water has turned a plain plateau into gigantic stone pillars, some of which are 400-500 meters high. The canyons see almost no precipitation at any season of the year - between 1980 and 1990 the canyons received no snowfall at all, and in the last decade of the twentieth century snow has fallen twice. If the air temperature in Bishkek is 20 degrees below zero, in the Sulu-Terek Canyons it is +5 degrees - however, in recent times the climate in the Canyons is becoming a little colder. One peculiarity of the Sulu-Terek Canyons is that plants growing there tend to be very large - much larger than usual. One of the main attractions at Sulu-Terek is an extinct volcano, dating back to 2.5-3 million years ago with slopes covered with fossilized sea shells the size of the child's fist and the remnants of lava.
The unique beauty of the Sulu-Terek canyon lies in its overwhelming rocks, dry and transparent air, long shadows fall- ing from the nature-carved sculptures lit by the setting sun of the Tien-Shan.
Dry, free from any vegetation, the canyons display a red colour due to the oxidation of mineral particles; they look like an accumulation of half -ruined castles, ancient temples, modern skyscrapers, columns and spires, The queer shapes of these constructions led people to give them strange names.
The Konorchok canyons are the product of an erosion process lasting for several millennia. The movement of the earth crust produced cracks and fissures. Rainwater, filling the cracks during frequent summer thunderstorms, loosened castles of Konorchok the sandstone stratum beneath the surface soil and decorated the landscape by carving fantastic columns. The slopes of the sur-rounding highlands eventually turned into a labyrinth of sharp pointed ridges, low table mountains, domes, pyramids and pil-lars. Thus step-by-step, time, water and wind created the fairy-tale land of Konorchok. Looked at from a distance the landscape resembles the ruins of ancient towns spread out on a vast stretch of earth.
The Castle Rock is an impressively large massif with a flat top rising up to 300 metres, crowned with crenellated turrets. Picturesque tracks, twisting among the walls of the canyons, form massive blocks of rocks that gleam under the rays of the sun with all the hues of crimson, copper and orange. At sunrise the towers and domes of Konorchok become tinged by red and purple banners that flutter and play in the rays of the sunset, finally absorbing the golden hues of the expiring day. Top

Surot-Tash, petroglyphs. The tract of Airymach-Too is 8 km north-west of Osh. On the rocks of Surot-Tash mountain, about 30 images of major figures of thin-legged and beautiful horses standing alone are painted. Upon suggestion of the famous Russian scientist Yuri Zadneprovsky, at the foot of this peak, was the cult centre of an ancient state of Davan, which existed from the III century BC. There are legendary horses presented on the rocks, described in the ancient Chinese chronicles as horses with tremendous speed. They were called blood-flowing horses because instead of sweat they secreted droplets of blood on the surface of their skin. Despite the inaccessibility to petroglyphs, vandals still managed to spoil them. Top

Suusamyr, valley. The Suusamyr valley is a high steppe plateau - 2200 meters a. s. l. - that although only some 160 kilometers from Bishkek is also one of the more remote and rarely visited regions of Kyrgyzstan.
There are signs of early settlement dating back to between the 9th and 11th centuries.
The population, of about 6000, is mainly Kyrgyz and they are nearly all involved in agriculture. In Soviet times this was one of the major sheep breeding areas in the country. Up to four million sheep would be driven over the mountain passes in Spring to graze on the luscious grasses of the steppe.
Since 1991, the flocks of sheep grazing here have dwindled substantially and the people have diversified into other forms of agriculture - growing potatoes, garlic, cabbages and fodder crops. Today, most foreign visitors simply pass through as they travel the main Bishkek - Osh road.
Leaving Bishkek, you travel to Kara-Balta and then turn South towards the mountains. The road climbs through the spectacular Too-Ashu gorge - the original road climbed right to the top of the pass, but nowadays there is tunnel burrowed under it. You emerge from the tunnel and the plain lies below you. It is worth stopping and climbing a little to get a spectacular panorama of the plain.
Descending the road comes to a junction and a sign points to the village of Suusamyr, some 15 km west of the road, and the right fork takes you on towards Osh in the South, the Toktogul reservoir, lake Sary-Chelek, or the road over the Otmek pass to Talas.
Suusamyr village lies at the Eastern edge of the plain and has a yurt camp in summer, it is possible to find home stays, and there is a dacha some kilometers from the village which takes in guests.
From the village, there are two roads to Kochkor. The Northern route follows the valley of the Karakol river - at the foot of the Kyrgyz Range and is practically deserted - there are virtually no settlements here. The Southern road takes you through the villages of Kojomkul and Kyzyl-Oi before you reach the turning to Min-Kush or continue onto Chaek and Kochkor. The roads are not good.
Karakol is a small village on the banks of the river of the same name where it emerges at the extreme Eastern edge of the plain.
Kojomkul is named after a giant of a man, (he was 2.3 meters tall), and who died in 1955. The village has a small museum where you can see photographs of him, some of his clothes and you can see huge stones which he is reputed to have lifted onto his shoulders. A little out of town you can another weighing almost 700kg which he is supposed to have lifted and placed on the grave of a local official.
The road to Kyzyl-Oi (Red Bowl) passes through a narrow valley of the Kekemeren with the mountains rising steeply on each side. Photos. Top

Syrty - a cold semi-desert plain, formed on the heights of Tien-Shan from 3000 to 3600 meters, objects of which are characteristic to flat hills, small lakes and swamps, deposits of stones of different sizes. These are magnificent pastures. It tends to snow mainly in the summer here, but it quickly melts under the rays of the hot sun, and in winter it is almost without snow. Clouds are much lower, and the zone of perpetual snow is higher. Overall syrty, by thermal regime, is close to the Arctic climate.  Top

Kyrgyzstan travel