Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

T
Tagai-biy
Tahti-Suleiman
Tailak batyr
Talas, region
Taldy-Bulak gorge
Taldy-Suu, village
Tamga, sanatorium
Tamga, gorge
Tamga, settlement
Tamga-Tash
Tar, canyon
Tash-Kumyr
Tash-Rabat
Tash-Tulga

Tegirmenty
Teltoru, resort
Teo-Ashuu
Teplokluchenka
Teplye Kluchi
Terskey Ala-Too (Teskey Ala-Too)
Tian-Shan, mountains
Togolok Moldo
Tokmok, town
Toktogul, town
Toktogul, reservoir
Toktogul Satylganov
Ton, river
Toru-Aigyr
Torugart, pass
Tosor
Tourism
Turkestan Range
Tuura-Suu

Tynystanov, Kasym
Tyup, river



Tagai-biy, or Mohammed-Kyrgyz (1469-1533). In 1508, he was declared Kyrgyz ruler. The region, which was under his control, was called "Kyrgyz ulus". Mohammed-Kyrgyz came into and stayed in the Kyrgyz history under a legendary name of Tagai-byi and is considered to be the founder of Kyrgyz people, their first supreme ruler. He strengthened the connection between "right" and "left" wings of the Kyrgyz. He created an alliance with the Kazakh Khanate as the most reliable ally in the fight against common opponents. He fought for the independence of his people and establishment of their own Kyrgyz state. In 1517, Mughal armies led by Said Khan attacked the headquarters of Mohammed-Kyrgyz located on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul in the area of Barskoon. The Kyrgyz leader was captured captive. After five years in captivity in Kashgar, Mohammed-Kyrgyz was released. In 1524, Said Khan, has sensed danger, he therefore seized Mohammed-Kyrgyz again and sent him to prison in Kashgar city, where Tagai-biy died in 1533. Top

Tahti-Suleiman. One-room mosque, built on the eastern peak of Mount Suleiman in Osh. This construction is connected with the name of Muhammad Zakhiriddin Babur - descendant of Timur (Tamerlan), and was named Babur house. The mosque is small. The floor consists of hewn stone slabs, polished by feet of pilgrims. The walls of the mosque are made of white polished stone. In many places, these stones are decorated with sculptural carvings. The arch of the ceiling is oval and elegant. There are two small windows proportional to the total volume of the mosque, which consists of one room total area of 4 square metres. The oak door is decorated by various carvings and consists of two halves. Under the arch of a deep portal niche, in the open area in front of the mosque, is a mullah. Top

Tailak batyr (Tailak Ryskul Uulu, 1796-1838). He was born on the bank of Naryn river, and was a prominent member of the liberation movement in the first half of the XIX century. Tailak was a native of the Sayak tribe, a grandson of Zhanbolot batyr, a national hero. For nearly twenty years, he was a captain of Kyrgyz tribes that inhabited central Tien-Shan, and he led them to fight against the invaders of Kokand. In 1838, Tailak was poisoned by a Kokand scout, after which, the Kyrgyz people of Naryn were conquered by the Kokand khanate. He was buried at the confluence of the river Kurtka with the river Naryn. A majestic gumbez was erected over his grave, which is still preserved to this day. Top

Taldy-Bulak gorge. Kemin district, Chui region. It is 12 km south of Orlovka village in the foothills of the Tien-Shan mountain range. There are gold mining deposits of Taldy-Bulak Levoberezhny take place there. An Australian company Summer Gold Ltd (60%) and "Kyrgyzaltyn" (40%) hold the licence. Top

Taldy-Suu, village. Tyup district, Issyk-Kul. To the east of the village, 1.8 km away is a complex of kurgans, consisting of two chains of circular mounds. They vary from 12 - 26 metres in diameter and 1 - 2.5 metres in height. There are 18 kurgans with earthen and stone mounds registered to the west of the region. There are also stone sculptures found there. In the northern part of the village, towards the entrance of the gorge, there are about 100 preserved mounds. These mounds include earthen, stone and mixed ones, there are sketches and round-shaped layouts of stones. Previously, there were stone sculptures, but now there are only 3 that survived, which are located on the street, near two houses.
North-east of the village, on the adyr, in the area of Kara-Bulak is a settlement. At the foot of adyr is the river called Taldy-Suu. The settlement is rectangular in shape, measuring 76x84x84x86 metres. Its corners are oriented according to directions of light. The height of the shaft reaches up to 1,6 metres and 6 metres wide. In the inner side, along the shaft, a ditch 1 m deep and 2 m wide passes through. The settlement has two exits. A cultural layer can be seen in the north-western and south-eastern parts of the settlement, where it reaches a thickness of 0,5 m. Strategic location of the settlement and its topography suggests that it acted as a fortress. It occupied a dominant position of the area, hence this fortress was able to control a large part of Tyup valley. Top

Tamga, gorge. It is located above Tamga village, southern shore of Issyk-Kul. The word Tamga interprets as a generic sign of Turkic as well as some other nations. Tamga monuments are represented by carvings of animals. They are dated back to VI-I centuries BC. Some groups of mounds on the shores of Tamga are also related to that period of time. In the centre of the tract on adyr, there is a burial, which consists of kurgans (tumuli) with earthen mounds and fences. Around a number of fences there are stone sculptures and balbals. In the valley there are 3 stones, spaced at 1 km from the Tibetan rock scripts. The nearest stone is two kilometres from Tamga village, called "Tamga-Tash" (stone with a brand) by the people. The stone is on a high level ground at the old trail that runs along the river Tamga. It is closed off by vegetation and it can only be seen at close range. There is a Buddhist mantra "Om mani padme hum" carved on it, a kind of prayer that can be used in any circumstances. Top

Tamga, temporary place of settlement of the Stone Age. It is located at the beginning of Barskaun gorge on the left bank of Barskaun river. There are stone working tools related to the Mousterian period (45-20 thousand years ago).  Top

Tamga-Tash. In Tamga gorge, on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul, there are three stones of Tamga-Tash. The most famous is the first Tamga-Tash. It has a bas-relief inscription, written in Tibetan - "Om Mani Padme Hum". The letters are carved in strict monumental style. Around the letters is the cut down stone surface, hence they became the relief-volume. The inscription on the stone is dated to Dzhungarian (Kalmyk) period (XV-XVII centuries). It is an original prayer, which can be used in any circumstances. The literal translation of the mantra, "Oh! The jewel in the lotus ", but it is rarely understood in this sense. On the second Tamga-Tash stone, the inscription is similar to the first Tamga-Tash, but it is executed in counter-relief and dated to an earlier period. Most notably, is the fact that this stone was used for ritual purposes, long before the rise of Buddhism. An upper surface of the stone has a unique hole, which indicates that this stone was used for ritual purposes during the Saks (IX century BC - II century AD). The inscription on the third Tamga-Tash is a stylised with a sign "OM". This inscription is as old as the inscription on the first stone. OM (or Aum) - is a sound that is a very important sound in virtually all traditional cultures of humanity. "Om Mani Padme Hum" - is the most common mantra or prayer in Tibetan Buddhism. It is spoken in Tibet constantly and everywhere. Since this mantra comes from Sanskrit and Tibetan Buddhism is also a Tantric Buddhism, its understanding is important not only semantically, but phonetically and not only the meaning, but also the sound. One of the interpretations of the mantra: OM - removes pride, MA - removes jealousy, NI - removes attachment, PAD - dispels ignorance, ME - dissolves greed, HUM - transforms anger. Stones on which it is written, are seen in Nepal to Southern Siberia. They are not only historical monuments, visiting them requires conscious attitude. Top

Tar, canyon. The river Tar is a tributary of the Kara-Darya river which flows from the East to the South of Uzgen and then down into the Ferghana Valley. Canyons rich with a variety of fauna and flora including shrubs and pistachio trees, two lakes, petroglyphs, a cave 910 m long and many springs of mineral water.  Top

Tash-Kumyr. A coal mining town which stretches for several kilometers on the side of the Naryn River below the Toktogul reservoir which serves as a starting point for trips into the Sary-Chelek reserve. The Bishkek - Osh road between the reservoir and Tash-Kumyr passes through a spectacular gorge.
Nearby is Kara-Suu where archaeologists have discovered the remains of a Stone Age settlement.  Top

Tash-Tulga, stone circles on the southern shore of Son-Kul lake. "Tash-Tulga" or "Tulga-Tash" means hearth, built of stones (trivet). In the archaeological literature they are called "eight-stone memorial fences". These eight-stone memorials date to I century BC, which have analogies on the territories of Altai, Tuva and western Mongolia. In the Central Tien-Shan, they are rare and "not in all cemeteries of the Saks era", which means that it must be assumed that the custom of construction of memorials from eight stones was not typical to the whole population of the Saks in Tien-Shan time.
Tash-Tulga consists of altars - eight-stone ones, and is not tied to the mounds, which in turn distinguishes them from the same Altai monuments. Each altar presents a laid out eight stones, arranged in a circle, with an average diameter of 1-1.3 metres. Nine such eight-stone memorials are lined up in a single line facing north-south for 200 m. Thus, Tash-Tulga has a planned structure with a numerical symbolism. Tash-Tulga, according to many researchers, from ancient times served as a ritual centre and a gathering place for the nomadic herdsmen. With the onset of warm season pastoralists dub their flocks on juicy, abundant with grass and water high mountain pastures. North of the stone circles, closer to the lake, is where the burials are located on top of which broken up rubble is spread. Top

Tegirmenty: A village at the head of the Chon-Kemin valley - thereare some ancient barrows (burial mounds) nearby. Top

Teo-Ashuu, pass (3586 m). It is the highest point of the motorway Bishkek - Osh. It connects Chu and Suusamyr valleys. The pass has a high climb. Pulling out of the tunnel, on the other side of the pass, there is a magnificent view of the Suusamyr valley. Top

Teplokluchenka. (Warm Springs). A village, 12 kilometers to the East of Karakol, at the foot of the Ak-Suu and Altyn-Arashan valleys.Top

Terskey Ala-Too (Teskey Ala-Too), a ridge. It is situated in the north-eastern part of Kyrgyzstan and it closes the basin of Issyk-Kul lake from the south. Its crest stretches for 375 kilometres latitudinally and rises at its highest part, south of Karakol town at 5216 metres above sea level. The average height of the ridge is about 4500 metres. Terskei Ala-Too ridge is very beautiful in its diversity. In one day you can see the beauty of red sand cliffs, wild forest and snow-capped peaks, wide stretches of the great the Issyk-Kul lake. Each gorge is unique and unrepeatable in its execution. Top

Tian-Shan. Mountain system. It is located in Central Asia, on the border between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and China. The name, Tien-Shan, means "celestial mountains" in Chinese. Tien-Shan has more than thirty peaks over 6,000 meters. The highest point of the system is Pobeda peak (7439 m). The next highest is the peak - Khan-Tengri (6995 m). There are three mountain ranges that diverge to the west from Central Tien-Shan, which are divided by mountain basins (Issyk-Kul with Issyk-Kul lake, Naryn, At-Bashy, etc.), connected in the west with Fergana ridge. In Eastern Tien-Shan, there are two parallel mountain ranges (the height of 4-5 thousand metres) separated by valleys (altitude of 2-3 thousand metres). There are high-raised (3-4 thousand sq. m) aligned surfaces - syrty, which are quite common. The total area of glaciers - 7.3 thousand km², the largest is South Enilchek. There are rapid rivers - Naryn, Chui, etc. Mountain steppes and semi-deserts dominate the area: meadow-steppes and forests (mainly coniferous) on the northern slopes; above these, sub-alpine and alpine meadows; and so-called cold deserts on the syrty. The length of the Tien-Shan mountains from west to east is 2,500 km. The first European explorer of the Tien-Shan in 1856 was Peter Petrovich Semenov, who received a title of "Semenov-Tyan-Shan" for his work. Top

Togolok Moldo (1860-1942) Alias. His real name was Bayimbet Abdyrakhmanov. He was a great Kyrgyz bard, a connoisseur of the Kyrgyz folklore, singer of epic "Manas", founder of the genre of fables in Kyrgyz literature. He was born in the countryside of Kurtka (now - Ak-Tala district of Naryn region) in a peasant family. He attended a Muslim village school. He worked in agriculture. A special place in creativity of Togolok Moldo were laments - koshoki and laments with complaints - arman. He created the first Kyrgyz fable, where he denounced the greed rich. He wrote satirical verses. There was an attempt to kill him, bandits twice plundered his house and took away his wife. Togolok Moldo has met with the famous akin Toktogul Satylganov. From 1925 - publishing works of Togolok Moldo begun. Between 1936-1938, - he passed a lot of valuable material on ethnography, history and folklore of the Kyrgyz into the SRI fund in the Republic Commissariat. In 1938, he became a member of the Writers' Union. Also, in 1938 - he was awarded the "Badge of Honour." Since 1994, Kyrgyzstan released a 20-som banknote into circulation depicting Togolok Moldo. In Bishkek, there is a monument displayed in his honour. Top

Tokmok. Is a small town about 60 kilometers east of the capital, Bishkek. The name means «hammer» in Kyrgyz. It is the commercial center of the Chui valley.
Tokmok was the site of one of the forts established by the Khokand khanate to protect trade routes and was the regional centre for the local administration when the Russians arrived. In 1878, a series of floods occurred and the milary engineers persuaded the bureaucrats to move the administrative centre to nearby Pishpek (Bishkek).
A couple of kilometers short of Tokmak, to the right of the main road, are the remains of another large ancient city - Ak-Beshim - and here, too, archaeologists have unearthed a Buddhist temple and a Nestorian church. Ak Beshim is mentioned in medieval texts as a large flourishing city and it served at one time as the capital of the Western Turkic State.
To the south, some 15 kilometers, lies the Burana Tower.
However, Tokmok played the role of fort and a large trading centre.
After the Russian forces took over the fort in 1860, people started coming here - Russians, Settled Kyrgyz and Uzbeks started building houses. Later the Dungans and Uygurs joined them.
Tokmok became a prosperous city during Soviet times, but shared the fate of all small towns after the collapse of the Union. Top

Toktogul town. This small town is situated in the north of the Toktogul reservoir, and was named in honour of the famous bard - Toktogul Satylganov (1864-1933). This town was formed in 1972 in connection with the flooding of the area by Toktogul reservoir, where Toktogul village was located, which was founded in 1926. Top

Toktogul, reservoir. Jalal-Abad region. It was established by Toktogul dam on Naryn river. It is the largest water reservoir in the Central Asia. A cascade of Toktogul hydro-power station includes two stations - Toktogul with a 1200 kWh power, and Kurpsai with a power of 800 kWh. The construction was carried out for more than ten years, and was completed by the mid-1970s. Filling began in 1974. Put into operation in 1982. Area of 284 km²; volume 19.5 km³ (useful volume of 14 km³), 65 km long and maximum 12 km wide, average depth of 69 m and maximum - 180 m; the level ranges to about 63 m. Maximum height is 215 m, crest length is 292 m. From the territory of the filling of the reservoir, 26 villages were relocated. Toktogul reservoir regulates many-years of run-off and increases the guarantee of water supply in irrigated areas (from 75% to 90%), allowing the user to irrigate 0.5 million hectares of land. Top

Toktogul Satylganov (1864-1933), was born in Kushchusu village, Toktogul district. He was a Kyrgyz Soviet national bard. He was also an expert in oral poetry, composer and virtuoso musician (performer on komuz). He was one of the founders of the Kyrgyz Soviet literature. Since Toktogul was 12 years of age, he began to compose songs. He learned from the masters of folk music - Niyazal, Eseniman, Sartybai, Kochkom-bai. Having won the AITYSH (competition) of the court bard Arzamat, he became known. He condemned late, feudal-bai wild customs, and inter-clan feuds in songs. "Besh Kaman" ("Five pigs") song has received a wide spread popularity. In 1898, Toktogul was sentenced to death on false charges, later this was changed to a hard labour in Siberia. In 1910, he fled, hiding in remote encampments, composing new songs and Cui. During the Soviet period, Toktogul wrote a number of songs about the Communist Party and the Council, the agricultural formation, and the transformation of the nomads. In 1965, a State Prize of the Kyrgyz SSR in Literature and Art of Toktogul Satylganov was established. Toktogul's name has been awarded an Order of the Red Banner of the Kyrgyz State Philharmonic. In 1974 - south of the Opera and Ballet theatre in Bishkek, a monument of Toktogul Satylganov was erected. His komuz is stored in the Historical Museum in Bishkek. Several locations were named after him including a street in the city of Bishkek, a town and a district in the Jalal-Abad region, reservoir and a hydropower. In 1995, a 100 som banknote featuring Toktogul Satylganov was released into circulation. Top

Ton, river. A southern shore of Issyk-Kul. In the flood plain and flood plain terraces of the river Ton, starting from the ancient city of Kahn Debe (Khan Debe) in the south to Balykchy - Karakol road in the north, burial mounds Ton-1 are found. The shapes and sizes of mounds do vary. Some individual mounds are made of large stones. Most of them are stone, round or oval in plan, 0.4-1.2 m high and 3-10 m in diametre. At the confluence of the river Ton and Ak-Sai is the burial mound Ton-2. There are 12 stone fences here, rectangular in plan. They are adjacent to each other and form a corridor, which is divided into sections. The corridor is oriented to the north-west - south-east. From the north-east side of the centre of each fence and in the corners are sandstones, which are made of slabs or oval shape stones, up to 0.8 m. The burial mound dates back to the Turkic time. On the right bank of the river Ton, several large stones were found with petroglyphs and ancient inscriptions executed in Arabic script . There was a stone-processing area located on the rocky talus, where craftsmen used to hew dzhergalchaki - millstones for water mills. Top

Toru-Aigyr, village. It is located 20 km from Balykchy. Not far from the village, in the basin of Toru-Aigyr river, in its entirety, stones and rocks contain the oldest cave paintings of nomads, and also burial mounds and stone sculptures of Turks. There are mounds of Saks-Usun time (VIII century BC - VI century AD). Here, there are also graves of the Turkic period (VI century AD - XIV century AD). In the lower reaches of the river there is a settlement, which is identified with the medieval town Sicul (Issyk-Kul). From the west, Toru-Aigyr river served as a city's boundary, from the north and east it was protected by a long wall. Perhaps the city consisted of two parts - the upper (northern) and lower (south), which is now under water. Under the water you can see underwater structures. Sometimes, Issyk-Kul waters bring up pieces of ceramics onto the shore and bleached by water and time, bones of residents of the ancient city. In the northern part of the city, excavations revealed the remains of a mud-brick houses and monumental buildings. Burnt bricks, pottery, etc have been lifted from the bottom of the lake. Above the village, on the northern part of the city, during the excavations in the 40s of the XX century a medieval bath was discovered. The water to the bath was supplied through ceramic pipes. The floor was paved with bricks, covered with turquoise glaze (this type of brick was quarried by the locals for their needs). The bath was built of burnt brick, and was divided into several parts, each with its own purpose. The main part - furnace with two smaller furnaces, where the brick tanks, covered from the inside with a thick layer of alabaster, heated the water. The floor area for washing was 100 square metres, so as the recreation room or the dressing room. On the eastern edge of Toru-Aigyr village is gumbez of XVIII century. It is a dome structure with a small portal. The entrance from both sides is flanked by two round imitation towers. On the portal's either side are rectangular recesses, the upper part is decorated with lattice figured laying bricks. Building material - adobe brick, small amount of juniper trees was used for coverage, the foundation - stone pebbles and boulders. According to Russian researchers: "Around the mountains, there are many ancient tombs, where Kyrgyz found a copper pot with handles and gold saucer". Top

Torugart pass (3752 m) connects Kyrgyzstan and China (Xinjiang). Many tourists cross Torugart because this pass is a part of the tour along the Silk Road. Special provisions and remote border posts can become an insurmountable obstacle to a self-travelling tourist. A huge number of officials on both sides of the border sometimes make this process very difficult and even impossible. Tourists are often returned due to lack of necessary documents. It is not possible to receive a visa on the border. Top

Tosor, parking lot of Mousterian period. The parking lot is on the right floodplain terrace on Tosor river, 5 km from the highway. There is a precipitous plateau. The height of the parking lot is above the water edge about 100-110 meters (west to east). Instruments were seen on the ground, which could be found in the shallow gully. The excavations yielded a collection of more than three thousand instruments and various types of waste. All of them were in the thickness of forest at different depths. Local materials were used to make working instruments: grey creamy chert, porphyry, and also jasper and hornfels. Multiple nucleus, chips and fragments indicated that Tosor was a type of workshop for creating working tools. Nucleus were different in size, but more often the work-pieces were 5-7 cm in diametre. The age of the parking lot is dated 100-140 thousand years. Tosor is translated as "outpost" from Turkic. This is confirmed by the ruins of a small fortress - Tosor, 100x100 metres, located on the outskirts of the western part of the village Tosor. In the vicinity of the village, in the floodplain of the same named river are numerous historical monuments. Top

Turkestan range. It is located in the south-west of Kyrgyzstan, where it surrounds Fergana valley in the south-west. Kyrgyzstan is popular with its northern slopes. All of the northern slopes of the central and eastern parts of the ridge over 80 km are of great interest for climbers. All in all this is a very little explored region by alpinists, with the exception of world famous gorges Aksu and Karavshin. The climate is much milder than in the Tien-Shan. Annual rainfall is of 250 to 400 mm, increasing from west to east. The driest months are August and September. Average January temperature is - 5°C and +14°C in August. Top

Tuura-Suu. Above the Bokonbaevo village (southern coast of Issyk-Kul), near the village of Tuura-Suu, lies the whole scattering of the archaeological monuments. On the right bank of the river Ton, several large stones with Petroglyphs and ancient inscriptions were found there, which were engraved in Arabic script. The stone processing station is located on the rocky talus, where craftsmen hew dzhergalchaki - millstones for watermills. Small hills of burial mounds are scattered around the valley.
Ancient graves in stone sarcophagi were discovered in Tuura-Suu village, which were covered by slabs of rock. The ruins of the ancient citadel city, which were built in the VI century, are still preserved in the valley surrounded from three sides by low mountains. The remains of the fortress walls, half-flooded by waters of Tortkulsky reservoir, are well visible even at present time. The remains of sanctuaries, which are led by paths, surrounded by stones can be found on the peaks of nearby mountains. Top

Tynystanov, Kasym (1901-1938) - linguist, bard, public figure and professor. He was born in ail Chyrpykty in Issyk-Kul. He received his primary education in the 1909-1912 years in the local Muslim school. Between 1913-1914, Tynystanov studied at new-method school, and then in 1914-1916 in the Russian-native school of Przhevalsk (Karakol). In 1924, after graduating from the Tashkent Institute of Education, he worked as a secretary, then a chairman of the regional branch of the Kyrgyz Academic Centre (Scientific Commission) of Turkestan Republic. Since 1925 - was an editor of the "Erkin Too" newspaper. In 1927-1930 - he was a Commissioner of National Education of the Kyrgyz SSR. In 1930-1937 - Tynystanov became a research assistant, then a director of Kyrgyz Institute of Cultural Construction.
K. Tynystanov made an invaluable contribution to the development of the Kyrgyz national writing. With his participation, works have been carried out to adapt the Arabic alphabet into the Kyrgyz language. Translation of Arabic script into Latin and the transition from Latin to Russian alphabet. He developed the basic principles of orthography (spelling) and the Kyrgyz linguistic terms.
K. Tynystanov was the author of the first textbooks in Kyrgyz language, the first grammar of the Kyrgyz language, and reading books in Latin script. K. Tynystanov proved himself as a talented translator, poet, and playwright. In 1925, a poetic collection was issued in Moscow. He translated Krylov's fables into Kyrgyz language. For the play, "Akademiyalyk kecheler", and several other works, K. Tynystanov was subjected to persecution. In 1937, on charges of bai-manap commitment and bourgeois nationalism was arrested and in 1938, shot. He was completely rehabilitated in 1988. Top

Tyup, river. Tyup flows through the territory of Ak-Suu and Tyup areas. It originates on the northern slope of the Teskey Ala-Too ridge and flows into the Gulf of Tyup in Issyk-Kul lake. The length of the river is 120 km and a catchment area of 1180 km². This is the largest river of the Issyk-Kul basin. Major tributaries include Ken-Suu, Chong-Tash, Koochi, Taldy-Suu, Shaty, Korumdu and others. The river has the lowest average height of the catchment, resulting in a pool that is less than the most common modern glaciers. The main source of supply is melted snow and rainwater. It has stretched spring floods. The annual precipitation is 880 mm. Its maximum flow occurs in May. Average annual water consumption is 10.6 m³ per second.
The basin of river Tyup is an indicator of hydration of the Issyk-Kul basin as a whole. Analysis of the water flow of the river Tyup and the level of Issyk-Kul lake has shown that significant consumption of Tyup is consistent with the rise levels of the lake, and insignificant consumption is its sharp decline. Many researchers note that, in connection with a noticeable warming and decreasing precipitation that began in the last century, there was a decline in the Issyk-Kul. Within the middle flow of the river Tyup there is a botanical reserve "Tyup" with an area of 100 hectares, which protects areas of juniper growths. In the upper reaches of the river Tyup, in the tract of Karkar in the area of 1500 hectares, is a zoological reserve "Tyup" intended to protect deer, wild boar and deer. There are San-Tash, Sarah-Tologoy, Toktoyan, Taldy-Suu, Tyup and many more villages that are located within this territory. Fish is well caught at the top of the river, the type of fish include mountain trout, dace, carp, carp and others. Top

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