History of Kyrgyzstan
On this territory, until the emergence of modern Kyrgyzstan, Homo Neanderthals
inhabited this land, traces of whom were found on the mountain Boz-Barmak
(near Issyk Kul lake). Five to ten thousand years ago on the shores of Issyk-Kul
lake,there were Mesolithic hunters, who painted cave walls of Ak-Chunkur with
red ocher, depicting hunting scenes and dances.
In the II century BC, Scythians who called themselves the Saks, formed the
first state formations on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan. In the I century
AD, Usuns migrated from the east (Xinjiang). In the V century, there was a
mass migration of Ethtalitian tribes ("White Huns"), who formed a large government
in all the Central Asian space. Then, the Sassanids replaced them. In the
early Middle Ages, the Turks lived here, who were direct descendants of the
In the VII century, the territory of Kyrgyzstan became the Western Turkic
Khaganate, in the VIII century, after its collapse, the territory became a
part of Karluk Khaganate.
In the XII century, Uzgen and Balasagun cities became centres of Karakhanid
government, where Kara-Chinese Khanate came to replace it.
In IX-XII centuries, in Southern Siberia, upper Irtysh and East Turkistan
was a government association of Kyrgyz Khanate, which up until the arrival
of the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan has been one of the most powerful governments
in the region. In the XIII century, the lands were conquered by modern Kyrgyzstan
Moguls and entered the Chagatai ulus from which a semi Mogolistan developed
A lack of unity in the face of threats, gathering power from the son of
Genghis Khan Dzhuchi, allowed to win the troops of the Kyrgyz from the Yenisei.
According to China's manuscript of 1770, "Xiyu zhi", Kyrgyz "fleeing unrest"
have appeared in the Tien-Shan mountains in the middle of the XV century.
Rulers of an emerged Kokand khanate in the Fergana Valley in the XVIII century
have selected Kyrgyz land as one of the main targets of their aggressive
policy. The Kokand khans managed to subdue most of the Kyrgyz tribes, using
their fragmentation and inter-tribal fighting. The Kyrgyz tribes remained
an integral part of the Kokand khanate for more than a century and a half
(1710-1876). At the time, there were many settlements built, including Pishkek
and Tokmok fortresses.
From the middle of the XIX century, some tribes have attempted to seek protection
from more powerful neighbours. In 1876, Russian troops defeated the Kokand
Khanate and occupied the territory of Northern Kyrgyzstan. In the late XIX
century, migrants began arriving from Russia and Ukraine. Another wave of
immigrants has been registered after the suppression of Dungan in China and
their penetration into Central Asia.
Russian government was noted by many Russian actions. Russian experts have
begun a large-scale resettlement, road construction, opening of schools and
set the stage for the mining industry.
The tsar government did not interfere in the life of the Kyrgyz, however
World War I led to the need to mobilise the population for trench work. As
a result, on 10 August,1916 an uprising occurred which engulfed Russian Turkestan,
including the nomadic Kyrgyz and Kazakhs. Wrath of the rebels primarily attacked
Russian settlers. The uprising was brutally suppressed. Almost half of the
Issyk-Kul region of the Kyrgyz population was exterminated. Part of the Kyrgyz
population fled to China, where later on the border of Xinjiang province,
a Kyzylsu-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was established.
In Soviet times, as a result of the policies of the national-territorial
demarcation, a Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous region was first formed (14 October,
1924), and then transformed into the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(1 February, 1926), and finally, the area became known as the Kyrgyz SSR on
5 December, 1936.
The Soviet government has made significant changes in the life of Kyrgyz
people. In 1917, the equality of men and women was proclaimed, in 1921, polygamy
and dowry (ransom of a bride) became illegal.
In the 1920-1930s, there was a rapid development of industry in Kyrgyzstan.
By 1940, coal mines of Kyrgyzstan gave 88% of coal, which was used in Central
Asia. There were also non-ferrous metals, production of antimony and mercury,
food (sugar) and some light industry being developed. By 1941, there were
approximately 300,000 livestock farms in Kyrgyzstan.
As a result of Stalin's repression, which peaked in the 1936-1938, scientific
and creative intelligentsia as well as Muslim clerics were almost completely
destroyed. During repression, books and manuscripts in Arabic were destroyed.
Kyrgyzstan's industrialisation continued in parallel with the development
of agriculture, even after the Second World War. In the early 1980s, there
was a movement for the establishment of contacts with Kyrgyz people living
in other regions of the USSR, China and Afghanistan.
A democratic movement of Kyrgyzstan started in 1990 after the collapse of
the Soviet Union. In October 1990, the first president of Kyrgyzstan was elected.
On 31 August, 1991, the government declared an independence of the Kyrgyz
Republic. Financial difficulties associated with the transition to a market
economy have begun, exacerbating ethnic conflicts.
The very first Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as an independent sovereign
state was accepted on 5 May,1993.
Its own national currency - som - has been introduced on 10 May,1993.
In 1993, the country was shaken by its first corruption scandal linked to
the name of the Prime Minister - Tursunbek Chyngyshev. Another government
crisis triggered reform in 1994, in which Parliament became bicameral. Meanwhile,
the country was becoming a major staging post of export of Afghan drugs. The
key centre of Kyrgyz drug dealing became the city of Osh.
In 1999 and 2000, Batken events rocked Kyrgyzstan when fighters of the Islamic
Movement of Uzbekistan tried to break from Tajikistan through Kyrgyzstan to
Uzbekistan. In 2001, a U.S. air base Manas was posted in Kyrgyzstan.
The first symptom of the crisis was the Aksy events in 2002 - the clash
between the public and the police. Then came the Tulip Revolution on 24 March,
2005, completing a 15-year ruling of President Askar Akayev (1990-2005).
The new president became a representative of the "poor South" Kurmanbek Bakiyev
(2005-2010), who failed to stabilise the country. Bakiyev was ousted from
power during the next revolution on 7 April, 2010. The power passed down
to the interim government led by the leader of a previous revolution Roza
Otunbayeva. Clashes between new and old power provoked ethnic conflict between
Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the south of the country, during which more than 200
people were killed and hundreds of thousands of Uzbeks fled the country.
A referendum was held on 27 June, 2010, which confirmed the authority of
Roza Otunbayeva as the head of state, for a transitional period up to 2011,
and a new constitution was adopted, confirming a parliamentary form of government
in the country.
On 19 October, 2011, at the meeting of the Eurasian Economic Community in
St Petersburg, an accession of Kyrgyzstan to the Customs Union was announced.
On 30 October, 2011 elections were held for the new president, where A. Atambaev